Category Archives: Italian Prisoners of War North Africa

Miracoli di Internet!

 

My research into Italian prisoners of war in Queensland has a number of public faces: the book Walking in their Boots, the website: italianprisonersofwar.com and the facebook page: Prigionieri di guerra Italiani in Australia

It was through the facebook page that I received notification from Nino Amante in Italy. On 23rd March 2018, Nino wrote, “Sono il figlio di Angelo Amante, il più alto nella foto.”  Nino had not only found a photo of his father on the facebook page but he then found the website’s article, A Day in the life of …  and comments about his father’s time working on a farm ‘Redslopes’ at Goomboorian via Gympie 72 years ago.

This was an accident. Nino had been searching the internet for an article about his son, named for his grandfather, Angelo Amante, and instead found his father. Nino was overwhelmed.

I believe that things happen for a reason.  I do not know the chances of bringing together the son of an Italian prisoner of war and the son of a Goomboorian farmer. But a google search and a phone call* has brought together the two sides to this history.

Nino Amante’s words and contact has brought this story ‘full circle’. “E’ stata per me una grande emozione avere delle informazioni da aggiungere a quelle raccotle dall sua viva voce, quando mi parlava del period della sua prigionia,” Nino reflects.  Nino not only has knowledge about his father’s time on this farm, but he has a connection to Jim and John Buchanan who were young boys at the time and who have fond memories of Angelo.

More importantly, Angelo’s story before and after ‘Redslopes’ emerges.  At 19 years old, Angelo Amante began his military training, first in Turin and then in Bolzano.  He was a member of the 7th Reggimento Bersaglieri(marksmen).  He was then transferred to Taranto and in 1941, he left Italy by ship for Libya.  He was lucky to survive the journey to Libya, as many soldiers died after the fleet was bombed by the British.

Angelo Amante (1)

Angelo Amante: 19 years old

(photo courtesy of Nino Amante)

Angelo was captured at Gialo, a Libyan oasis town on 25th November 1941. Gialo was taken by British and Punjabi troops on 24th November 1941, but a small group of Italian soldiers continued fighting in the north east  El Libba sector.  After four hours of combat, two Italian had been killed and 27 Italian soldiers were taken prisoner.

Possibly the photo  below of a relaxed Angelo was taken at Benghasi, his first experience of Libya. Like many of his generation, Angelo spent ‘his youth’ in foreign and difficult circumstances. He returned home to Italy when he was 25 years old. Nino explains, “Sei dei suoi anni piubelli trascorsi fra guerra e prigionia.”

Angelo Amante (3)

Angelo Amante in Libya 1941

(photo courtesy of Nino Amante)

Angelo’s journey is like many of his peers.  Italy to the battle field to Egypt to India to Australia to Italy.  Angelo arrived in Melbourne Australia 29th December 1943. The next day he was in the Cowra PW & I Camp.  His time there is recorded in a group photo Cowra 6th February 1944. Ten days later, Angelo was sent to Gaythorne Queensland 16th February 1944.

A Amante standing first left

Cowra, NSW. 6 February 1944. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned at No. 12 POW Group. Back row, left to right: 57037 A. Amante; 57273 G. Guarnaccia; 57288 G. La Iacona; 57252 S. Giambusso; 57051 C. Avola; 46957 S. Vizzini; 57257 G. Giarratano. Front row: 57268 M. Gordini; 57070 L. Bloisi; 57046 R. Armentano; 57038 S. Amoroso; 57226 D. Foringo. Note: The number is an assigned POW number. (Australian War Memorial Image 030173/15)

Before Nino’s internet search, he had one photo and the stories about his father’s time in Australia, but he did not know dates or places.  Nino says, “Sapevo che mio padre era stato in Australia, ma in quale parte di Australia? Che era vissuto in una fattoria, ma quale fattoria?”  But his time in Australia was always remembered with fondness, a place to which Angelo wanted to return.  In 1956, Angelo made preparations to emigrate to Australia with his wife and family. During a medical visit, it was discovered he had a small heart problem and his dreams of going to Australia ended. But his family kept safe a small photo of three men and two boys, knowing that it was an important part of Angelo’s memories of Australia.

Angelo Amante (2)

Angelo Amante , Salvatore Scicchitani (Schichitano), Vincenzo Cannavo with John and Jim Buchanan at Redslopes Goomboorian via Gympie

(courtesy of Nino Amante)

For over seven decades, this photo  did not have a context.  Nino knew that the photo was from his father’s time on a farm, but he did not know where in Australia this farm was located. Angelo told his family a story about chilli plants he had grown on this farm and now he knows it was Jim, a little boy who tasted the chilli with severe repercussions.  Angelo told his family about a trip to the city, to undergo a medical visit at the hospital and the wonder of seeing so many kangaroos on the way.

Jim’s memories and Angelo’s stories to his family are being slotted together. Nino writes that his father arrived in Australia from POW camps in India with very poor health. Angelo had contracted malaria and Nino remembers the story of  an old lady on the farm who realised the seriousness of his condition and encouraged him to eat and the need for him to regain his strength.    Jim knows exactly who this lady was, his Aunty Mag [Margaret], who was the matron (supervisor) for the Land Army girls on the farm.  Angelo’s visit to the Gympie Hospital is recorded in the farm diary: August 21 1944 – Angelo going to hospital.   And the stories travel back and forth between Italy and Australia and across the decades.

Upon Angelo’s return to Italy, he made his way home to Fiumefreddo di Sicilia and his widowed mother.  Angelo married in 1953 and moved to Mascali, his wife’s home town.  He continued to work the land and raised his family: Nino and Giuseppina.  In 1984, Angelo passed away at the age of 63.

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Angelo Amante

(photo courtesy of Nino Amante)

The sharing of stories and memories, the answering of questions and the ‘Miracoli di Internet!’ is like finding those missing pieces in the jigsaw puzzle and finally being able to put them in place.

*In September 2017, I telephoned Jim Buchanan in Gympie.  I had been told that he was the person to speak to about some of the Italian prisoners of war in the Gympie district.  Jim’s words to me were, “I think you will be surprised with what I have to tell you.  I don’t think you will have found another one like this.” And surprised I was!

Jim’s father Neil Buchanan had kept a farm diary for ‘Redslopes’ at Goomboorian. Peppered through the entries from 7th March 1944 to 1st January 1946 are references not only about farm life, but also to the Italian prisoners of war at ‘Redslopes’. This diary offers a very unique and firsthand account about the employment of Italian prisoners of war.

On 24th March 2018, I telephoned Jim again.  I told Jim that I had some extraordinary news for him. Angelo’s son had sent me an email.  It took a few minutes for the news to sink in. Jim is rarely lost for words. I said to Jim, I wonder if Angelo took any photos home to Italy with him.  Nonplussed, Jim felt that this is not probable as very few photos were taken in those days.   Like Nino Amante, this journey for the Buchanan family is emotional and remarkable.

Stefano Lucantoni: In his spare time

Marco Lucantoni from Napoli has a special collection of items belonging to his father Stefano Lucantoni.  As a prisoner of war in Australia, Stefano kept himself occupied in several ways.

Lucantoni Libya.jpeg

He had a lot on his mind: his family. His wife Egle was pregnant when he had last seen her in 1939.  His son was seven years old before father and son met.

A special thank you to Marco and his brothers for sharing Stefano’s treasured keepsakes.  Relics like these give credence to the historical accounts. They tell the personal history of Italian prisoners of war in Australia.

CHESS

Stefano took home with him a beautiful chess set made in Cowra. Featuring the Sydney Harbour Bridge, the image was a reminder of Stefano’s arrival in and departure from Sydney: 1941 and 1946.

Lucantoni (8)

PLAYS

In Cowra on the 28th June 1946, a group of Italians staged L’Antenato a Commedia in 3 Alli. Stefano played the part of Egidio.

The carefully designed and produced programme highlights the efforts the men made for their production. The play was written by Guerrino Mazzoni, the sets created by Eliseo Pieraccini and Carlo Vannucci. Montaggio by Stefano Lucantoni, Renato bianchi, Felice di Sabatino, Luigi Proietti, Armano Mazzoni and Cesare Di Domenico.  Performers were Bruno Pantani, Guerrino Mazzoni, Carlo Vannucci, Tarcisio Silva, Bruno Dell Amico, Guigi Giambelli, Renato Bazzani, Marcello Falfotti, Alvise Faggiotto, Stefano Lucantoni. Suggestore was Giuseppe Carrari.

They were men from all walks of life: electrical engineer, butcher, clerk, mechanic, plumber, butcher, decorator, policeman, farmer, blacksmith, carpenter.

Lucantoni (2)

Lucantoni (3)

EDUCATION and LANGUAGE CLASSES

Lucantoni (1)

It was considered imperative that POWs occupied their leisure time usefully and the policy was to provide opportunities for POWs to further their studies.  Libraries in the camps were established and canteen profits used to purchase additional text books relevant to courses undertaken. Books from overseas were allowed in the areas of banking and financial, medical, scientific, art, economics, music, agriculture, religion, trade and commerce as well as periodicals of a general literary nature. Grammatica – Italiana – Inglese is Stefano’s exercise book from these language classes and shows his meticulous notes.

Lucantoni (9)

The book, Pidgin English for Italian Prisoners of War was specifically published and given to Italian POWs being allocated to farm work under the Prisoner of War Control Centre: Without Guard scheme.  Some of the sections were: Tools, Machinery, Farm Produce, Animals, Hygiene and Medical, Family, House and Conjugation of Verbs.

Lucantoni (6)

Stefano’s third book, Piccola Guida per Gli Italiani in Australia was written by Padre Ugo Modotti December 1944.  He worked closely with the Italian migrant community in Melbourne from 1938 to 1946.  He wrote this booklet for the Italian migrants.

On 9 March 1945, the Directorate of Prisoners of War was aware of this booklet and on 31 March 1945 approval was granted to distribute Picolla Guidi per Gli Italiani to the Italian prisoners of war in Australia.

By 1945, there was a relaxation in how the Italian POWs were viewed.  While they were still POWs, they were not considered a high security risk.  It was also a time when the Italians were thinking about life in Australia after the war and requesting permission through their farmers to stay in Australia and not be repatriated.

A guide for Italian migrants to Australia, this book gave the Italian POWs information to prepare for the time when they would return to Australia as migrants and free men.

METAL WORK

A story of love and a story of imprisonment.

The ring shows the intials E and S entwined and signifies the love of Stefano and his wife Egle.  Made in silver and another metal, the silver was obtained from Australian coins eg florins and shillings. Although it was forbidden for POWs to have Australian currency in their possession, necessity and ingenuity always find a way around the rules.

Lucantoni (7)

The emblem is carefully crafted with the words: Ricordo Campo 12 A Cowra and entwined initials POW. It was the badge for the chess set.

Lucantoni (4)

LETTER WRITING

Lucantoni (5)

This card was printed and distributed for Natale 1944. A bucolic Australia landscape of sheep, gum trees and space.  Despite processes in place for prisoners of war to send postcards for Notification of Capture and Transfer of Prisoner, Stefano’s wife believed him dead and asked the Red Cross to try to locate some information about him.

In September 1941, Egle received a letter from the Red Cross telling her that her husband was a prisoner of war in Australia. Instructions were given to send mail to: Posta per prigionieri di Guerra, Australia.

Any wonder why mail was lost and months and sometimes years passed before mail was received.  The image on this postcard was very foreign to Stefano’s family, but its arrival conveyed love and hope.

Lucantoni Stefano and Egle

Stefano and Egle: Happier Times

A special thank you to Marco Lucantoni for the photographs used in this article.

More than a photo frame

Memories can be easily forgotten. Tangible items are long lasting.

The Italian prisoners of war used paint, handkerchiefs, board, thread, wood and metal to create tangible items as a way of recording their time as a prisoner of war.

Anselmo Franchi from Tesogno (Parma) crafted his memories in wood.

At first glance you will see the obvious: a photo frame in the shape of Australia.

But this is more than a photo frame: it is a record of Anselmo’s journey.

Photo frame made by Anselmo Franchi (photo courtesy of Roberto Pardini)

The crest and crown motif – Crest representing the House of Savoia, the Kingdom of Italy

The date palms, minaret, and sand dunes – Libya, Anselmo was captured at Port Bardia Libya

The three-funnel ship – the Queen Mary which transported Anselmo from Egypt to Australia

The kangaroo – Australia

F A – Franchi Anselmo

While the photo frame represents the past, with the inclusion of a photo of Anselmo’s wife, it also represented the ‘present’ and the ‘future’.

Stand for Photo Frame (photo courtesy of Roberto Pardini)

Roberto Pardini, Anselmo’s son-in-law, shares further details, “Anselmo was very proud of his work, since, as you can imagine, the tools to make it were not many. He used an axe to bring the wood to the desired thickness and with a piece of blade from a table knife he made the bas-relief. Anselmo used the map of Australia on the 1941 YMCA Christmas card as a pattern for the frame.”

Front cover of Anselmo’s 1941 Christmas Card from YMCA (photo courtesy of Roberto Pardini)

Campo 306 Geneifa Egitto

A very special thank you to Antonella Benvenuti from Venezia.  Antonella has shared with me documents relating to Camp 306 Geneifa Egypt. Collaboration is integral to documenting this history.

Representatives from the International Committee for the Red Cross visited prisoner of war camps and wrote reports regarding the conditions of the camps, services and welfare of prisoners of war.  

These reports are vital primary source documents providing valuable insights, as are the photographs taken on their visits.

I have combined information from these reports together with photos to present a ‘photo story’ of Geneifa Prisoner of War Camp 306.

The reports used: February and July 1942; February and October 1943; March 1944.

The photos used: October 1941 and undated photos.

GENEIFA, EGYPT, 1941. PRISON CAMP AT GINEIFA, NOT FAR FROM SUEZ. TAKEN FROM PASSING TRAIN. (AWM Image P00237.056)

THE CAMP

Camp 306 is an immense camp consisting of 24 sections each with several dozen tents and able to house 500 to 800 prisoners. In February 1942, 23 sections were occupied by Italian prisoners of war; 3 of these sections were reserved for the officers.

In total there were 301 officers: three lieutenant-colonels, seven majors, three priests, 34 doctors and 34 assistants to the officers.

There were 700 Italian soldiers in each of the other 19 sections. In each section there are 60 tents.  The men sleep on the sand and have two or three covers/blankets at their disposal.  They have no complaints about the cold.

The camp is situated in a desert region but has picturesque views of a lake and some mountains.  The climate is healthy. (February 1942)

WORK and PAY

Two hundred prisoners per section work in the camp constructing paths around the tents etc.  They work approximately 8 hours a day but do not work on Fridays or Sundays.  They are paid 2 piastres per day, on top of their allowance of 10 piastres: 10 one week and 5 the alternate week.  The pay is paid regularly. (February 1942)

No complaints about payments. Italians, with the exception of officers, the men receive their pay and wages in cash. Italian officers receive 1 Egyptian pound in cash and the remainder is credited to their individual accounts.(February 1943)

Geneiffa, camp N° 306. Confection de briques crues avec du sable.

Manufacturing of bricks made from sand VP- HIST-00848-24A

Geneiffa, camp N° 306. Travail en détention. Geneiffa, camp n°306. Work in detention.

Camp Duties: VP-HIST-E-05028

Geneiffa, camp N° 306. Corvée de lessive.

Camp Duties: Washing VP-HISTO-02858-11

In October 1943, there were 407 Italian prisoners of war in Camp 306 (and 9,810 German prisoners of war)

All Italian prisoners of war work either in the Italian section of the central POW post office or in the bakery, or are employed at the camp commandant’s office. A few are also assigned to the maintenance service of their section.

The POWs who take care of the maintenance of the camp do not receive any salary. Those who have other jobs (post office, bakery, office workers) receive a salary of 3 or 6 milliemes per hour. There are 1000 milliemes in an Egyptian pound. The supervisors receive 8 milliemes per hour. (October 1943)

Geneiffa, camp N° 306. Boulangerie.

The Bakery VP-HIST-00851-13

Geneiffa, camp N° 306. Boulangerie.

The Bakery VP-HIST-00851-14

POW CENTRAL POST

The POW Central Post forms a special section within Camp 306, completely isolated from the rest of the camp.

In the post itself, the German and Italian departments are separate. About forty German prisoners and a hundred Italians work there in long and vast tents specially fitted out for this purpose. Two files are used and constantly kept up to date, one alphabetical with the surnames and first names of prisoners of war, the other numbered with registration numbers.

The Italian section has a file for officers and another for all other ranks.

All correspondence from the Middle East is classified and distributed upon its arrival at the Postal Section among prisoners of war responsible for checking addresses. This operation is carried out using the two files. Then, the letters are reclassified by addresses and sent to their recipients. The figures below, which indicate the number of letters and parcels received for prisoners of war during the last three months, will give a more precise idea of ​​the amount of work provided by the central post of the camp 306.

https://www.ebay.com/itm/MIDDLE-EAST-FORCES-POW-Camp-306-in-Egypt-to-USA-1943-CENSOR-MEF-/114662407922

ITALIAN MAIL

July 1943: 9,424 private packages, 205,846 letters

August 1943: 3,448 private packages, 219,861 letters

September 1943: 2,025 private packages, 7,978 Red Cross packages, 340,138 letters

It is necessary to note that there is more than 20,000 letters per day to sort and they are re-sent within 24 hours.

The department of Censorship in Cairo censors 50,000 letters per day. (October 1943)

NB 100 piastres = 1 Egyptian pound; 1000 milliemes = 1 Egyptian pound; 10 milliemes = 1 piastre.

FOOD

The quality of food is according to the requirements expected by the Red Cross.  The prisoners of war are responsible for the preparation of their food and development of daily menu according to the provisions.

Geneiffa, camp de prisonniers de guerre italiens N° 306 “Middle East”. Délégué du CICR tenant le menu du jour.

ICRC Delegate with the Menu of the Day 8th October 1943 VP-HIST-03408-17A

Provisions are as follows: legumes, bread, eggs, fruit, flour, jam, meat, macaroni, fresh milk, cottonseed oil, onions, potatoes, pepper, rice, salt, sugar, fresh legumes, dried fruit. (February 1942)

After meals, the kitchens can be used by the POWs to prepare extra meals with food purchased in the canteen or received in Red Cross packages. (October 43)

Geneiffa, camp N° 306. Fourneaux.

The Kitchen VP-HIST-00851-25

Geneiffa, camp N° 306. Cuisiniers.

The Cooks VP-HIST-03400-14

Geneiffa, camp N° 306. Douches.

The Showers VP-HIST-00851-12

HYGIENE

It is very satisfactory. There is no vermin at the camp.* However, a single faucet in the kitchen should suffice for the needs of the entire section, and it often happens that the water is turned off for part of the day. Prisoners have one hot shower per month. The latrines are clean.

The general health condition is very satisfactory. (February 1942)

*Fleas had been a problem with Italian and Australian soldiers on the battlefields.

All the prisoners have a shower and they bathe in the sea once a week. (July 1942)No complaints about this. Each prisoner of war has a toilet bowl available. Prisoners of war can take a cold shower every 10 days at the shower facility located in a special section of the camp. Showers have been built in some sections by the POWs themselves and can be used without great restriction. A group of 400 POWs went to bathe in the sea every day. This favor had to be abolished since the repatriation of the seriously wounded and protected personnel was planned. The camp commander does not think he will be able to re-establish these sea baths after the departure of the returnees, because the season is now almost over. Each POW receives a bar of soap per month. There are toilets available at a ratio of 2 toilets per 100 prisoners of war and they are clean and without odour. (October 1943)

Geneiffa, camp N° 306. Vue générale d’une section du camp.

General View of the Camp VP-HIST-03400-27

Geneiffa, camp N° 306. Intérieur de tente.

Interior of Tent VP-HIST—03402-24

LODGINGS

It was possible to house up to 12 men in a tent. In time the Italian prisoners of war were issued with mattresses made of straw. The photos reveal accommodation consisted of a semi in-ground bunker with a tent roof. The bunkers were made of sand bricks which were then rendered, as were the outside seating and retaining walls. The retaining walls also acted as a barrier to shifting sands. The Italians constructed vegetable gardens between the tents.

Geneiffa, camp N° 306. Préparation de l’emplacement d’une tente.

Preparation and Construction of Base for Tent VP-HIST-00848-23

Geneiffa, camp N° 306. Vue générale d’une section.

General View of Camp VP-HIST-00849-02

Geneiffa, camp de prisonniers de guerre italiens N° 306 “Middle East”. Le prisonnier de guerre en charge de la cantine vendant des oeufs et des dattes à un délégué du CICR.

The Prisoner of War in Charge of the Canteen VP-HIST-03400-14 8.10.41

CANTEEN

Items sold at the canteen are useful and sold at a fair price. The price is controlled periodically by the Commandant  and is rectified if necessary. (July 1942)

The canteen is run by an Egyptian. It is very well supplied with products and articles of all kinds. there are fresh fruits and vegetables, canned food, syrup, toiletries (soap, toothbrushes, toothpaste, razor blades, shaving soap, etc.) clothing items (underwear, shirts, shorts, socks , stockings, handkerchiefs) stationery (paper, feathers, ink, pencils) tobacco, cigarettes, sweets and sold at local trade prices. The prices are established in Egyptian piastres (there are 100 piastres in an Egyptian pound).

The only essential item that is lacking is matches. This did not surprise us since it is very difficult to find matches in Egypt today. The share of profits on sales of the canteen which goes to the POWs is 2 1/2% of the sales figure. These benefits can be used by the prisoners according to their desire. In general, they are used for the purchase of desired foods which are distributed fairly among all sections. Currently, these profits will be used to pay for the Christmas dinner. (October 1943)

CLOTHING

Clothing is of good quality and all prisoners have shoes (Feb 42)

At the time of capture, if the prisoners did not have certain items (as below), they were given the items:

Summer: 1 pair trousers, 2 pairs shorts, 1 colonial helmet, 1 leather belt, 1 pair of shoes with studded soles, 1 pair of sandals with rubber soles, 2 pairs of socks, 2 towels, 1 tooth brush, 1 fork, 1 knife, 1 metal plate, 1 metal bowl, 3 bed covers/blankets. 

Winter: 1 military hood, 2 undergarments, 2 underpants (October 1943)

Geneiffa, camp N° 306. Salades dans un jardinet devant une tente.

Salad items growing in the gardens in front of a tent VP-HIST-03400-09

DAILY ROUTINE (October 1943)

Each morning rise at 5.30h except Sunday – 6h.

Roll Call is half hour later. Evening roll call is at 15.30h

Lights out 22h

MAIL

Prisoners write regularly twice a week and those who have been there for more than four months have all received news from their families. (February 1942)

Letters and packages reach their destination on average in 30 to 60 days. Many packages received from the Red Cross arrive in poor condition and in some cases, the food is not suitable for consumption. (July 1942)

Letters sent from Sicily since the occupation have arrived at the camp in seven days. (October 1943)

INTELLECTUAL NEEDS, SPORT AND MORALE

There are many books available for use by the prisoners and they have many games.  A sport’s field is located in the centre of each section. (February 1942)

Two hundred books is insufficient for the number of prisoners.  An orchestra of 50 men has been formed.  The orchestra plays a major role in boosting the morale of the men. (July 1942)

Geneiffa, camp N° 306. Hôpital, terrain de tennis pour les médecins.

Hospital and Tennis Court for Hospital Staff VP-HIST-00849-30

Le Caire. Visite du camp de la mer Rouge. Cairo. Visiting the camp of the Red Sea.

Construction of Bocce Court VP-HIST-03408-10A 8th October 1941

Geneiffa, camp N° 306. Prisonniers de guerre italiens jouant de la musique.

Musicians VP-HIST-03402-26

Prisoner of War Uniforms around the world

Sometimes it is the little items which catch my eye.

Prisoner of war uniforms has left me quite perplexed.

For a few years now, I had noticed the black stripe down the side of trousers.  This however only seemed to be for Italian POWs who had time in India.

This was confirmed by Domenico Ferulli’s recollections:

Ad Ismailia, località al centro del canale di Suez, sono cinque giorni chiusi un un recinto nel deserto.  Sono spossati fisicamente e con il morale a terra.  La notte è talmente freddo che molti sono costretti a bruciare la giacca o le scarpe per riscaldarsi. Per cucinare si usa la paglia.  Fatti spogliare e fare una doccia tutto il vestiario è ritirato e bruciato in alcuni forni.  Periscono incenerite anche le migliaia di pidocchi, che da mesi hanno tenuto fastidiosa compagnia! Assegnano a ciascun prigioniero: una giacca leggera color cenere con una toppa di stoffa nero quadrata cucito dietro le spalle, pantaloni lunghi con banda nero, scarpe nuove, sapone per la pulizia e persino dentifricio con spazzolino da denti.

Guerre 1939-1945. Bangalore. Camp 2. Prisonniers de guerre italiens. Communion donnée par un délégué apostolique. Word War II. Bangalore. Camp 2. Holy communion given by an apolostic delegate.

Italians Taking Communion in a British Camp in India 1943

(ICRC V-P-HIST-03474-19A)

Suddenly, everywhere I looked, I saw the black diamond sitting squarely between the shoulders of a light colour jacket and shirt, as well as the black stripe down the leg of shorts and trousers.

Many of the clothing items the Italian soldiers brought into the camps in Egypt were infested with lice or fleas.  It makes sense that these uniforms were burnt and new ones issued.

In May 1943 it was reported that Italian casualties (deaths, missing and prisoners of war) were 400,000. 

Logistically, how did the Allied Forces procure 400,000 replacement clothing and find staff to sew on patches.

And what did these patches represent!  Was there a code relating to intended destinations for the prisoners? Or was the allocation of uniforms random?

Prisoners of war in England wore a dark coloured uniform with either a pale coloured circle shaped patch sewn on the right leg or a diamond patch on the right leg.

Emilio Clemente is standing on the right of the photo

Prisoner of War Uniforms with patch on right trouser leg

English Prisoner of War Camp courtesy of Mimosa Clemente

Then I noticed an Italian prisoner of war in November 1941 at Cowra camp wearing a black diamond shaped patch on the backside of light coloured trousers.

The Italians who arrived in Australia during 1941, was transferred directly from Egypt to Australia. Did they receive these pants in Australia or Egypt?
Answer: Egypt, because once in Australia, the Italians were issued with their Australia POW uniform.

The strap is taken from a uniform jacket issued to enemy prisoners of war and civilian internees held in Australian camps during the Second World War.  (AMW Relic 32594)

The official Australian prisoner of war uniform was disposal Australian Army khaki uniforms which had been dyed burgundy as is illustrated in the above photograph. The men were allowed to keep other clothing to be worn only inside camp or for farm work, this included their national uniforms.

Guerre 1939-1945. Nouvelle-Galles du sud, camp de Cowra. N°12, Section D. La cantine. War 1939-1945. New South Wales, camp of Cowra, n°12, section D. The canteen.

Canteen at Cowra Camp November 1941

(ICRC V-P-HIST-01879-32B 1941)

At Campo 306 Geneifa Egypt prisoners of war were photographed wearing the black diamond pants with dark shirts and there are groups of Italians wearing the black stripe pants and black diamond shirts. A pattern seems to emerge: prisoners once processed in Egypt were given clothing: 1. pale coloured pants with a black stripe and pale coloured shirt with a black diamond OR 2. dark coloured shirt and pale coloured pants with a black diamond on the backside of the pants.

Geneiffa, camp N° 306. Fourneaux.

The Kitchen at Geneifa Camp 360 Egypt (ICRC VP-HIST-00851-25)

The photo below was taken in 1943, Italian prisoners of war in Melbourne after arriving from India….black stripe on pant!

(1943). Italian Prisoners of War – Italian prisoners of war on their way to a prisoner-of-war camp, following their arrival in Australia.

(National Archives of Australia)

Cowra, NSW. 1944-02-03. Italian prisoners-of-war from No. 12 Prisoner-of-War Camp using a heavy duty pulley block and tackle to pull down a large tree in a paddock near the camp. (AWM Image 064137, Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Was the allocation of clothing random?

Was the use of stripes and diamonds random?

Did your father or grandfather mention the POW uniforms?

Has anyone else noticed these uniforms with patches or stripes?

Have a look at photos taken of nonno or papa in the camps of India?

The USA appear to have adopted a completely different approach as is indicated by the P.W. stamped on both shorts and shirts of these German prisoners of war.

German Prisoner of War Uniforms

(from Military Law and Vigilante Justice

in Prisoner of War Camps during World War II

Mark M. Hull, PhD, JD, FRHistS January-February 2020 MILITARY REVIEW)

Food… finally

Food… water… the most basic of necessities was in short supply for the Italians after capture.  Providing food and water to 40,000 prisoners of war after the capture of Bardia or to 28,000 after the surrender of Tobruk was a logistical nightmare for the Allied forces.

At the Tobruk [prisoner of war]Cage it was reported that, “At first, it took one of the two infantry companies posted at the cage seven hours to distribute the day’s rations—one tin of veal, two biscuits and a bottle of water to each man, though few prisoners had even a bottle to receive their water in… The 2/2nd Battalion which relieved the 2/7th reduced the time spent feeding the prisoners to five hours by installing water tubs and employing Italian N .C.O’s to organise the lines.

(From AUSTRALIA IN THE WAR OF 1939-1945 SERIES ONE ARMY

VOLUME I TO BENGHAZI AUSTRALIA IN THE WAR OF 1939-1945

SERIES 1 (ARMY ) I . To Benghazi. By Gavin Long. *

Volume 1 Chapter 9 Capture of Tobruk)

The featured photo is dated 22 January 1943: COME AND GET IT. HUNGRY GERMAN AND ITALIAN PRISONERS TAKEN BY THE 8TH ARMY RECEIVE A RATION OF BULLY BEEF AND BISCUITS. (NEGATIVE BY F. HURLEY). It illustrates the distribution of food as reported above: tinned meat and biscuits.

The hunger pains and the lack of food security contributed to fear of starvation and dehydration. Thirst was more pressing, made worse by the fact that the tinned meat was highly salted.

In the camps of Egypt, one would either smoke or eat. Cigarettes were currency and would be exchanged for bread. Italians took up the offer to work outside the camps or within the British Officers’ compounds. Any opportunity which offered a chance to scrounge found was taken.

Secret Document: “Ration scale to be applied in respect of prisoners of war, all ranks, from Middle East in Troop Transports” indicates that the Italians on the ships, at least for the Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth voyages of 1941 were well fed.

This view is supported by written testimonies of Italians on two separate voyages of the Queen Mary

steaming food… hot tea… bread… butter… jam

breakfast…lunch…dinner

dream or reality

(AWM2021.8.387)

Suspicious that the first meals were a ruse, minds turned to thoughts that soon, life would return to days of hunger.

Will tomorrow be the day that the food rations are reduced?

Will tomorrow be the day that hunger returns?

Italians took opportunities to volunteer to work in the kitchens or galleys to ensure food security.  In time, the Italians realised that they would always have enough food and they drifted away from ‘work’.

Kindness was shown to the Italians by the British ship’s crew: a box of capstan cigarette and matches, being taken to a crew’s cabin for a shower, a bowl of plum-pudding, slices of ham, delicious apricot tart, issue of white clothing and apron for kitchen work; and the Australian soldiers: cigarettes, pressed tobacco and papers.

For c. three weeks from Suez to Sydney with three meals a day, the daunting concerns were now:

will we have enough food in the camps in Australia?

POW Paperwork Trail

From the time the Italians were captured in North Africa to the time they were repatriated and handed over to authorities in Naples,  the footprints of the Italian POWs can be traced through a dossier of documents. Each document provides a glimpse into the journey of a prisoner of war.

Collectors of military records and military postal correspondence have preserved important documentation regarding prisoners of war. Together with official documents in national archives, items in private collections assist researchers to piece together a more complete picture.

A special sincere grazie to Vitoronzo Pastore for his permission to reproduce the documents relating to Donato Lorusso and Lorenzo Illuzzi.  Members of the Associazione Italiana Colleczionisti Posta Militare have been most helpful in my quest to find prisoner of war letters for Italians who were in Australia and Queensland in particular.

Processing as a prisoner of war

The start of the official documentation begins with each Italian being registered, processed and allocated a Middle East prisoner of war number (M.E. or M/E). This number is a British number and stays with the Italians in the camps of India. The men captured in Libya and Greece/Albania were processed in Egypt POW Camps. The men captured in Eritrea and Ethiopia were processed in Sudan.

The men from the Bartolomeo Colleoni were among the first Italian prisoners of war: date of capture is 17 July 1940. You will notice Nicola Aucello’s Middle East Number: 34.

Notification of Capture- Prisoner of War – Comite International de la Croix Rouge

Once the Italian prisoners of war were processed in Egypt, they were given a Notification of Capture card to send to their next-of-kin. Information included place of imprisonment: Italian POW Camp N. 19, Egypt.

Notification Egypt Prisoner of War

from the collection of Vitoronzo Pastore

Letter to Italy – from Prisoner of War Cage in Middle East

Mail from Egypt.  When you read the address: Camp 321 POW Cage 5, Chief POW Postal Centre Middle East, one understands why letters when missing and were never received.

Mike White Worldwide Postal History

Notification of  Transfer to India

Every time an Italian prisoner of war was transferred, they were given a card to send to their next-of-kin regarding the transfer: Transfed to India.

India

from the collection of Vitoronzo Pastore

Italian Prisoner of War in India

A number of documents have survived relating to POWs in India.  On the Australian Service and Casualty Record, there is a M/E number.  This is the number given to the Italian prisoners of war once they were processed in Egypt.  This number stayed with the men in India, and then is recorded on their Australian card as well.

India: Prisoner’s of War and Civil Internee’s History Sheet – of particular interest is the record of vaccinations and inoculations. Some Italian families have found this pink India History Sheet in file for their father in the Italian military archives.

Torrese India Pink

(NAA: A 7919, C99078 Isaia Torrese)

India: Envelope containing POW photos for prisoners of war – Bangalore

Santolini Bangalore envelope

(NAA: A7919, C104104 Gino Santolini)

India: ID photograph

Some India ID photos are in the Australian dossiers for an individual. You will notice that the background and format is different to the Australian ID photos. If you have a photo with a similar backdrop, more than likely it is from India. I do not know if ID photos were taken in Egypt and Sudan. This is an unknown.

(NAA: A7919, C100451 Italo Rossi)

India: Postcard

Postcard from India

from the collection of Vitoronzo Pastore

India: Financial Record for No 16 Prisoner of War Camp, Bairagarh

Procedures ensured that financial accountability for all income and expenses was recorded.

Migliori Canteen India

(NAA: A7919, C101033 Giorgio Migliore)

India: Booklet – Clothing and Supplies

Italian prisoners of war in India were issued with a Clothing and Supply Booklet which accounted for the dispersal of items to the men.

Trunono India Clothing Card

(NAA: A7919, C98805 Michele Truono)

Notification of Transfer to Australia

Once the Italians arrived in Australia, they were given a card to notify next-of-kin of their transfer: Transfrd to Australia. To comply with Article 36 of the Geneva Convention, these cards were to be sent within a week of arrival at their camp. Lorenzo Illuzzi was scheduled to be transferred to South Africa, but was sent to Australia instead.

Italian POW Transfer to Australia lluzzi

from the collection of Vitoronzo Pastore

Italian Prisoner of War in Australia

Australia: Service and Casualty Form for Prisoner of War

This form contains valuable information about the movement of the Italian prisoner of war.  Finding Nonno is a HOW TO interpret the information on this form.

Service and Casulty Form Italian POW Pietro Romano

(NAA: MP1103/1 PWI60929 Romano, Pietro)

Australia: Property Statement

Financial accountability required a Property Statement to be issued for each prisoner of war regarding the amount of money relinquished to authorities upon arrival in Australia.

Brancato Salvatore Record of Property

(NAA: MP1103/2 Brancato, Salvatore PWIX66245)

Australia: Medical History Sheet

Each Italian prisoner of war was medically examined upon arrival in Australia.

Medical History

from the collection of Vitoronzo Pastore

Australia: Agreement to work on farms

Italian prisoners of war volunteering for farm work, completed the form below.

Costa F agreement to work

(NAA: A7919, C101443 Costa, Francesco PWIM12105)

Australia: Identity Cards Issued for POWs allocated to PWCC and PWC Hostels

For Queensland, Italian prisoners of war sent to work on farms, their Identity Cards were issued at Gaythorne PW & I Camp.

(NAA: J3118, 65 Fresilli, Sebastiano)

This is a copy of an Identity Card for Italian prisoners of war who worked in Victoria.

(NAA: A7919, C102791 Di Pietro, Camillo)

Australia: Army Issue Post Card

Written to Filippo Modica (father) from  Gaetano Modica (son) who was in New South Wales (Cowra and Liverpool Camps and N20 PWCC Murwilimbah)

Letter 13

from the collection of Carlo Pintarelli AICPM

Australia: Army Issue Notelope

You will notice a signature: Blunt above the addressee’s name.  This was the captain of the Q8 Prisoner of War and Control Centre.  All mail for Queensland Italian POWs went via POW Camp at Gaythorne, which was the parent camp for the men.

Letter 2

from the collection of Carlo Pintarelli AICPM

Australia: Christmas Card: Natale 1943

Christmas Cards were provided to the prisoners of war by the YMCA.  They were provided in German and Italian.

CArd 1943 Natale

from the collection of MARIAMAR AICPM

Australia: Mixed Medical Commission Assessment

To comply with Article 68 of the Geneva Convention, A Mixed Medical Commission was formed to assess cases for early medical repatriation.  The men had to be in a fit condition to travel. Seriously wounded or seriously ill prisoners of war could ask to appear before the Commission.  There were 1400 Italian prisoners of war examined in Australia, with 242 being recommended for early repatriation.  The form below was part of this process. Orzaio Baris was repatriated on Empire Clyde, a Royal Navy hospital ship.

Baris Orazio Medical Committe form

(NAA:A7919, C101259 Baris, Orazio)

Australia: Financial Statement of Account

Upon repatriation, a Statement of Account was presented to the prisoners of war.   The financial settlement as below was settled the day before repatriation. The Australian Government remitted monies owed to the Italian prisoners of war to the British Government.  The British Government (or relevant authority) then remitted this money to the Italian government.  Discharge papers included a detailed record of finances for each man.

Statement of Accounts

 Statement of Account: Umberto Confrancesco

Back in Italy

Once in Naples, the Italian prisoners of war were accompanied by their Australia guards onshore.  The Italians are no longer prisoners of war. They are still members of the Italian Armed forces. The Australian guard detachment deliver the necessary paperwork to the Italian authorities including medical records.

The Italians are handed a Riconoscimento allo Sbarco card. Giuseppe Lutro’s card from the ‘Ormonde’ outlines the next stage of the process.

Vito Pastore writes in reference to LoRusso’s return to Naples… He introduced himself to the Accommodation Center of S. Martino in Naples where group drew up a questionnaire and sent in return license. Placed on leave on 6 \ 2 \ 47″.

Accommodation Centre at San Marino Napoli is also mentioned on documents in individual military records.

Important for Italian families to know, is that families can obtain a copy of  Service Records for their fathers/grandfathers, from the Office of State Archives in their region.

At the Military Housing Centre in Naples (San Martino), the POWs were registered and given two months  leave together with a payment of 10,000 lire.  Technically, they were still soldiers in the Italian Armed Services. Due to inflation 10,000 lire had little value.

Discharge Giovanni Riboldi.jpg

Declaration of Leave from Naples Military Command Centre

(From “Guerra e Prigionia di Giovanni Riboldi”)

The men would then have to report to their local Military District Offices.  There, more paperwork was completed regarding military service and time spent as a prisoner of war.  This was important documentation, which was needed to determine when one could receive a pension. I have been told that, “For every year you [Italian soldier] served in the army, you were given a 2 year reduction in your pension age.”

For those Italians who had experienced hospitalisation or a medical condition, they would not be discharged until further medical investigations were completed.

The declaration below from Giovanni Riboldi, also provides detailed information about his time as a prisoner of war.  He was captured on 7.2.41 at Agedabia, was liberated by the Italians on 5.4.41 and was captured again at Sidi Oma [Sidi Omar] on 22.11.41.

Riboldi Declaration

Declaration: Distretto Militare di Tortona

(From “Guerra e Prigionia di Giovanni Riboldi”)

India: Bhopal 1941

Miriam Stucchi is tracing the journey of her father, Alcide Stucchi: Libya, India, Australia. With a few precious photos and notations on the back of the photos, Miriam is retracing her father’s footprints.

Alcide Stucchi was captured at Sidi el Barrani on 9.12.40.  Sidi el Barrani was the first battle of Operation Compass. It was the first British attack in the Western Desert Campaign 10th – 11th December 1940 with the capture of supplies and 20,000 Italian troops. Sidi el Barrani had been taken by the Italians three months before and was a vital rail connection on the border between Libya and Egypt.Sidi el Barrani Italian dispositons

 

The map and  Volume 1 Ch 6 Sidi Barrani  are from Australia in the War 1939-1945 Series One (Army) Volume 1 to Benghazi by Gavin Long Published by Australian War Memorial Canberra.

By the 20th September 1941, Alcide and his friends Emilio and Leonardo are in a POW Camp at Bhopal India.

Stucchi back row Pellicane Stucchi Joyce Volonterio BHOPAL SEPT 1941

Leonardo Pellicane, Alcide Stucchi, J. Joyce CSM  and Emilio Volonterio (Standing L to R)

(photo from the collection of Miriam Stucchi)

Stucchi back second on left Bopal 1941

Miriam is very interested in finding the families of Leonardo and Emilio.  While Alcide arrived in Australia on board Mariposa 1.11.43, Leonardo and Emilio appear to have stayed in India until their repatriation to Italy.

Can you help Miriam?

For more information on Bhopal:  Italian prisoners of war in India and Bhopal 

 

il soldato Palagianellese

 

Ferulli

Domenico Ferulli

(photo courtesy of Rossana Ferulli)

A very special thank you to Rossana Ferulli who is sharing her father’s memoirs.  From Palagianello Taranto, Domenico Ferulli was 21 years old when he was captured at Bardia on 3rd January 1941.  He was 27 years old when he returned home to his wife Rosa. It is an honour to share his story.  As Rosanna says, ‘Era un ragazzino ed è tornato un uomo.’  Domenico’s recollections add many important details to the journey of the Italian soldier and prisoner of war:***

Ferulli Domenico.

Domenico Ferulli is seated second from the left.

His photo is also in the small box to the left.

(photo courtesy of Rossana Ferulli)

Campo di prigionia 3C Soldati italiani. Nel riquadro in basso a sn. il soldato palagianellese Domenico Ferulli catturato il 3 gennaio 1941 a Bardia.  dopo 3 anni di prigionia in India viene condotto il 4 aprile 1944 via mare a Melbourne (Australia) ove sbarca il 26 aprile del 1944 e portato nel campo di prigionia N. 13. Rientrera in Italia il 30 Octobre 1946.  Tra il 3 ed il 5 gennaio 1941 cadono prigionieri a Bardia 40,000 soldati italiani.  Appiedati ed incolonnati sono avviati in direzione delle line inglesi.  Un proiettile di cannone proveniente dale batterie italiane centra per errore la Colonna: è una strage. Una decina di Soldati italiani sono fatti a brandelli terminano le loro sventure in quella sabbia.  Ci sono anche parecchi feriti.

A causa della mancanza di mezzi, I Soldati inglesi dicono ai prigionieri italiani che non sono in grado di soccorrere I feriti anche se rischiano di morire dissanguati.  I prigionieri italiano soccorrono I loro colleghi come mglio passono.  Sopravvissuti a mesi di Guerra, all’assedio ed alla battaglia, spetta loro una dura pigionia senza sapere quanto lunga e dove saranno portati.  La speranza di riabbracciare I loro cari e di rivedere l’amata Italia pero è come un fuoco sotto la cenere. Dopo un giorno di marcia giungono a Sollum bassa sul mare, località che nei mesi precedent hanno colpito con I pezzi d’artiglieria.  Da Sollum in poi le lunghe colonne di prigionieri italani sono sorvegliate da motociclisti con le moto Triump, Norton ed autoveicoli fuoristrada.  Per giungere a Marsa Matruh comminano anche di notte, soffrendo soprattutto la stanchezza e la sete.  Li li fanno salire a bordo d’autocarri.  Transitati non distanti dalla citta di Alessandria d’Egitto, mediante un ponte in ferro attraversano il grande fiume Nilo nella zona del delta.

Ad Ismailia, località al centro del canale di Suez, sono cinque giorni chiusi un un recinto nel deserto.  Sono spossati fisicamente e con il morale a terra.  La notte è talmente freddo che molti sono costretti a bruciare la giacca o le scarpe per riscaldarsi. Per cucinare si usa la paglia.  Fatti spogliare e fare una doccia tutto il vestiario è ritirato e bruciato in alcuni forni.  Periscono incenerite anche le migliaia di pidocchi, che da mesi hanno tenuto fastidiosa compagnia! Assegnano a ciascun prigioniero: una giacca leggera color cenere con una toppa di stoffa nero quadrata cucito dietro le spalle, pantaloni lunghi con banda nero, scarpe nuove, sapone per la pulizia e persino dentifricio con spazzolino da denti.  Da questi campi di raccolta e smistamento sono transferiti a Suez, porto sud mar Rosso.  Sono imbarcati su una nave inglese, probabilmente da carico, oltre 2000 prigionieri di varied armi e specialità.  Si sistemano alla meglio sul ponte e nella stiva, dormendo avvolti in una coperta.  Il cibo distribuito a bordo è scarso: quando c’e da spartirsi le poche patate o cipolle, le buone regole del vivere civile vanno a farsi friggere.  Esiste solo il brutale istinto di sopravvivenza che prevarica tutto, I litigi sono frequenti.  Attraversano il Mar Rosso: a sinistra della nave scorrono le coste desolate dell’Arabia, a dritta quelle dell’Africa.  Oltrepassato Aden, di giorno si va a riparasi tutti all’interno della nave perche in coperta non si riesce a risistere a causa del sole forte.  La nave e scortata da due cacciatorpediniere della Marina Reale inglese; dopo cinque giorni di navigazione, quando si è ormai in pieno oceano Indiano, queste navi si sganciano.  Le probabilità che qualche nave da Guerra Italiana li liberi, oramai, sono pressochè nulle.

Rapida e triste ricorre spesso sulla nave la cerimonia di sepoltura; chi non ce la fa, avvolto in un lenzuolo bianco, viene fatto scivolare in mare. Nell’Oceano Indiano si sente la vicinanza dell’equatore.  Qui il clima è molto piu umido di Bardia. Dopo circa 22 giorni di navigazione giungono al porto di Bombay in India, colonia inglese.

*** Rossana has solved a couple of puzzles for me. 

I had noticed in the photos taken at Cowra, only some Italians wore pants with a distinctive black stripe down the leg.  It seemed that only the Italians who had spent time in India wore these pants.  Were these pants standard issue for India?

Then on Sunday, I found photos taken in the camps of India, and on the back of the shirts was a diamond pattern of black material.  How odd, I thought.  Were these shirts standard issue for India?

Domenico’s story answers these questions: these items of clothing were issued in Egypt.  Maybe Italians going to India were issued with the clothing with black stripe and black diamond! Maybe those Italians going directly go Australia were given a different set of clothes!  One question might be answered. But another question is raised!

V-P-HIST-03468-24.JPG

Camp No. 8 Prisoner of War Camp India: Preparation of Vegetables

(ICRC V-P-HIST-03468-24)

Preghiere del Prigioniero

In 1941, the Apostolic Delegate for Egypt and Palestine had ‘Libro di Preghiere’ published in Palestine, with the permission of G.H.Q. Middle East.

A special thank you to Daniel Reginato who shared his father’s copy of this book.

REginato 14

Paolo Reginato

(photo courtesy of Daniel Reginato)

Paolo Reginato kept notes in the section ‘I Miei Ricordi’. Paolo recorded his movements and also wrote the names and addresses of contacts in Australia and for other Italian POWs he met. It seems likely that the book was given to Italian prisoners of war soon after capture for it includes “Prayer of the Prisoner

Preghiera Del Prigioniero

Signore Iddio, che mia madre mi insegnò a chiamare con il dolce nome di Padre perchè mi sei veramente tale, mi hai creato, mi hai conservato la vita fra tanti pericolic, dall’alto dei cieli ascolta pietoso la mia preghiera.

Sono un povero Tuo figlio, lontano dalla patria mia e dalla mia casa: per aver compiuto il mio dovere di soldato, soffro ora questa prigionia e questa forzaia lontananza dale persone che Tu mi hai dato a conforto ed a sostegno della mia vita.

Vengo fiducioso a Te, perchè chi di noi è padre misura degnamente, l’affetto che Tu hai per le Tue creature.

Come affrontando la morte nell’ora dura dell battaglia Tu mi difendesti benigno, come anche nel dolore delle aspre ferrite e nelle sofferenze che mi accompagnarono mi rendesti forte, cosi ora, o Padre mio, continua a begliare su di me; stendi la Tua Provvidente Misericordia ed il tuo Amore sulla mia vita, affinchè io possa ritornare sano e salvo al focolare domestico.

Reggimi l’animo, dà forza costante al mio spirit: veglia sui miei cari lontano.

Sento che a sera dai nostril genitori, dale nostre spose, dai nostril figli, dale nostre fidanzate salgono a Te, o Signore, calde preghiera per noi, e le nostre e le loro preghiera si confondono dolcemente nel tuo Cuore ed in Te ci consoliamo fiduciosi.

Accetta, o Signore, il mio affetto di figlio devote: voglio osservare la Tua  santa Legge, voglio adempiere il mio dovere di buon Cristiano, govlio dimostrarmi sempre Fedele all disciplina del soldato. Per I meriti del Tuo Divin Figliuolo Gesù Cristo esaudiscimi, o Signore.

O Vergine Santissima, veramente Regina nei tanti nostril Santuari, proteggimi sempre: deh, fa che io possa presto, in union ai miei cari lontano, sciogliere il voto ed il cantico della mia riconoscenza.

Cosi sia.

Pope Pius XII’s words to Italians at war are included in the forward of the prayer book: “Nostra intenzione è questa… che si ottengano I celesti conforti della grazia agli esuli, ai profughi, ai disperse, ai prigionieri, a tutti coloro insomma che soffrono e piangono per le calamità del presente conflitto.”

The complete speech:Pope Pius XII 27.10.1940

Reginato 16 - Copy

Index for Prayer Book

(photo courtesy of Daniel Reginato)

It will be interesting to know if any other Italian families have a copy of this prayer book.