Everyday Memories

Janice Joyce (nee Pownall) has a keepsake, from the time that Italian prisoners of war worked on her father’s property Mahoon out Monto way.

Monto.DowlingWarren.Pace.Dunn Syd (10)

QG Spoon: Daily Reminder of Monto Italian POWs

(from the collection of Janice Joyce (nee Pownall))

“Ring barking was the main work that the Italians did.  They would work out on the property at a camp site as the work was a distance away from the house.  After the men moved on, Dad went out to the spot where their camp kitchen had been and found a tablespoon with QG engraved on it. I still have it and it is used every day in my kitchen! Isn’t that lovely?” (Memories from Mahoon)

The Italian POWs were most resourceful and Alan Fitzgerald in The Italian Farming Soldiers wrote:

“The Italians, like prisoners everywhere did not pass up an opportunity.  When nine were admitted to the Hay detention barracks from Yanco they were found to possess towels, pillowslips and tumblers bearing the New South Wales Railways brand.”

One wonders how many ‘interesting’ objects like government branded items made their way back to Italy.

Q10.9 Michael Joyce and Jan Joyce

Michael Joyce, Joanne Tapiolas and Janice Joyce at Croftby 2017

(from the collection of Joanne Tapiolas)

Home on the Farm

Prisoner of War Quarters on Queensland Farms

Living arrangements for the Italian POWs who worked on Queensland farms were inspected and approved by the commanding officer of the Prisoner of War Control Centre.  Recollections of Queenslanders mention a variety of living arrangements for the Italians ranging from: sleeping on the verandah in the farmer’s house, sleeping in quarters built within a shed or barn, self contained cottages which had previously been labourers’ quarters and a stand alone building specifically constructed for the POWs. One of the excluded arrangements was ‘living in tents’. Please keep in mind that the buildings below are over 70 years old and no longer used as accommodation.

Some of the quarters still stand and continue to be reminders of those days.

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 Ol’ Goat Shed at the Boatfield Farm Amiens via Stanthorpe

(photo courtesy of Paula Boatfield)

Herbert William Boatfield’s farm was situated at Amiens and the farm had been Soldier Settlement plots of 55 acres.  Records show that he employed Andrea Lapa from Barletta Bari and Luigi Gardini Catanzaro. Paula Boatfield says that the shed was later used for angora goats, hence the nickname for the building.   Paula relates, “On our property is a building that we affectionately call the ol’ goat shed, because when Brett’s parents worked the property as a working orchard, they also had angora goats who lived in the goat shed and yards attached to it. The eastern wall of the ol’ goat shed has three doors (see photo) and the story was that when the Italian POWs were working on Harslett farm (our neighbour), when the authorities would visit the farm the POWs would come up here to our place and three of them each had a room in our ol’ goat shed. I don’t know how true this story.”

Prisoner of War Hut on the Sauer Farm Upson Downs outside of Gayndah

(photos courtesy of Joanne Tapiolas)

Colin Sauer had two farms: Upson Downs and Bananpan across the river. This cottage is situated on Upson Downs.  Documents record that he employed Antonio Iaccarino, a barber from Mondo di Procido; Giovanni Farina, a farmer from San Giovanni a Teduccio Napoli; and Fortunato Franco, a mason from Bovalino Reggio Calabria.  Due to its historical significance, Colin’s grandson, Colin Wenck stands steadfast that the cottage will not be pulled down.

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Workers Cottage at the Harsant Farm Warrill View via Boonah

(photo courtesy of Joanne Tapiolas)

Roderick Harsant’s farm is at Warrill View via Boonah.  Francesco Pintabona from Taviano Lecce; Domenico Masciulli from Palmoli Chieti; Salvatore Mensile from Siracusa Sicily; and Vincenzo Nocca from Modica Ragusa all spent time at the Harsant farm.  Roderick’s son Ian says that the cottage used to be on the banks of the creek which is prone to flooding.  To preserve this special link to Francesco Pintabona, Ian had the cottage moved and raised to protect it from future flooding.  Ian’s grandson Jack muses,

“If only walls can talk!”

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Janette and Dorothy Jones in front of Prisoner of War Accommodation

at Rural Retreat Severnlea 2018

(Photo courtesy of Joanne Tapiolas)

From Official Records

It is important to note that independent representatives eg Red Cross visited the POW camps and also the accommodation on farms. Reports were written and in March 1944, farm accommodation in N2 PWCC Parkes and N5 PWCC Canowindra were visited.  Italian POWs had been working on these farms for six months. Extracts from this report follows:

This farm has one prisoner of war. It has a maisonette with electric lights The bedroom includes an iron bed, a mattress, a pillow, pillow cases, bed sheets and four blankets. The room is furnished with a dresser, a chair and a rug. The prisoner takes his showers in the farmer’s house. He take all his meals with the farmer’s family.

This farm has two prisoners of war. They are lodged in a tin shack, lit by the oil lamp. The bedding includes wooden beds, mattresses, pillows, bed sheets and four blankets each. The hut is furnished with a table and stools. The meals are taken in the same house where a wood furnace is installed. Ablutions are done at the laundry.

This farm employs two prisoners of war. They are housed in a separate maisonette, including a bedroom and a veranda. The room is furnished with stools and shelves. The light is electric. The bedding includes wooden beds, mattresses, pillows and four blankets each. Ablutions are done at the laundry. Meals are taken with the farmer’s family.

This farm employs three prisoners of war. They have a small house furnished with tables, stools, cupboards and oil lamps.  The bedroom had iron beds, mattresses, pillows and four blankets each.  The ablutions are made in the kitchen of this house.  The meals are taken in a little room in this house.

The conclusion of the report includes recommendations:

In general, we have found that prisoners of war enjoy working on private farms. Their lodgings varies according to the possibilities of each employer, but the food is  good and abundant, and the relations between the employers and the prisoners of war are cordial.

Problems of language are difficult, with employers only knowing English, and prisoners of war generally making little progress in the study of that language.

We believe, therefore, that Prisoners of War have a great need for Italian books and periodicals. However, it is not possible to procure them in Australia now. We have taken this up with the Apostolic Delegate who, while assuring us of his entire sympathy, informed us that he saw no way of finding Italian books on the spot.

We have obtained from the Red Cross 150 English periodicals which we have sent to the centres of Parkes and Canowindra. On the other hand, the National Secretary of the YMCA  has just informed us that he has placed at our disposal 500 English periodicals to be distributed in the centres of control in Victoria. This effort will be continued, and we hope to be able to provide illustrated English periodicals in all Australian control centres.We have also consulted the Military Authorities, who have given their approval that small libraries of these illustrated periodicals be set up in each control centre.

Another important problem concerning Italian prisoners of war is that of family news. Indeed, in recent months, the number of letters received from Italy is extremely low. We offered our services to the prisoners of war to forward any request for family news.

Mittagong, 27 May 1944 (NAA: A989)

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Schulz Farm Image Flats via Nambour

(photo courtesy of Martin Schulz)

 

 

 

 

Tribute: The Ossario

During World War II 4,000 Italian, German and Japanese POWs were detained at Murchison. Those who died at Murchison were buried in the local cemetery but floods in 1956 did major damage to the graves.

The Italian families in the municipality were persuaded by Luigi Gigliotti to pay for the building of a mausoleum – the Ossario. Luigi also convinced authorities to bury all the Italian POWs and detainees who died in Australian prison camps in the mausoleum. The Ossario is a fitting tribute to those Italians who were never to return home from Australia and each year on Remembrance Day there is a mass and service in recognition of these men.

The Ossario, as is shown below, is also the final resting place of the five Italians who died in Queensland:  Giovanni Ciccocioppo (Q1 Stanthorpe); Nicola Evangelista (Q2 Nambour); Agostino Naibo (Q3 Gympie); Francesco Leone (Q4 Gayndah) and Francesco Primiano (Q7 Kenilworth). They were reburied at the Ossario on 6 September 1961.  (National Archives of Australia NAA: A8234, 13A, 1915-1961)

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Ossario Murchison 

(Murchison and District Historical Society Inc., 2014)

A special thank you to Kay Ball from Murchison and District Historical Society. Kay lay the wreath for the Evangelista family from Cassino Italy at the ceremony and service 11th November 2018.

IMG_7202.JPGKay Ball Murchison: Laying Wreath for the Evangelista Family

(photo courtesy of Kay Ball)

 

 

Rememberance Day 11th November 2018

Ossario Murchison

(photos courtesy of Kay Ball)

A Special First

Alex Miles from Mooloo via Gympie visited me in Townsville in September 2018.  He brought with him two special items associated with the Mooloo Italian prisoners of war.  His childhood neighbour Noela White (nee Wyllie) had a cellophane belt made by one of the POWs and Alex had a coin which Francesco Ciaramita had started to shape into a ring.  Both Noela and Alex felt that the items needed a ‘home’ where they could be appreciated as part of the history of Italian prisoners of war in Queensland.  A decision was made to dontate them to the Australian War Memorial (AWM) and I had the honour of beginning the process.

Mooloo 1

While the AWM had similar items in their collection, these items were made by Australian soldiers.  An application was made to the AWM to see if members of the acquistion team were interested in the items, this is stage one of the donation process.

Stage 2 was the sending of the items with historical details to the acquistion team for further investigation and evaluation.

Stage 3 followed with the  items being formally accepted into the AWM collection.

22nd November 2018

Dear Joanne,

Thank you kindly for returning the Deed of Gift. I am glad to let you know that the items you have donated are now officially part of the National Collection.

Thank you for your generous support of the Australian War Memorial.

Yours sincerely,

Aiden Silvestro

Acquisitions Officer | Registration

A special first

Rings from Coins

This project has brought to light a number of POW treasures. Items that Queenslanders and Italians have shared with me, are truly treasures: remnants over 70 years old.

There have been a number of references to rings the Italians made as gifts for the farming families.  With few resources, the Italians used Australian coins to make these rings. Unfortunately, rings are easily lost or misplaced.

I visited a lady in Brisbane in May to talk with her about her family’s Italian Prisoners of War. In a matter of fact manner she placed her hand on the table. I was so excited, ” You have one!” There on her little finger was a ring crafted from a one shilling coin for a young girl’s hand. Carefully finished, its design is simple but beautiful. Precious in so many ways.

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Partly Made Ring: Italian POW at PA Miles farm Mooloo

(from the collection of Alex Miles)

Alex Miles from Mooloo Gympie has ‘found’ the workings of the Italians, thrown in a box in the shed amongst other bits and pieces.  He remembers the ring that was made for him which is long gone, because he wore it to school and the teacher confiscated it.  It was decorated with pieces of coloured hardened plastic, red and green, possibly from Tek* toothbrushes which were army issue. Alex remembers, “Francesco made the ring and he had a small hammer which he brought with him to the farm.  I am not sure where the coins came from because it was against regulations for them to have money.  After he left our farm, his record card has him being awarded 21 days detention on 2.3.1946 for having Australian currency in his possession.  He served this in the detention block at Gaythorne PW & I Camp.”

Alex’s father, Percy Miles reminisced, “Some of the things they used to do to beat the boredom. … Another thing was by tapping the edge of a 2 shilling silver coin (20 cent piece) with a hammer, causing it to flare out, then cutting a hole in the centre, it made a ring you could wear on your finger as a dress ring.”  Coins were 92.5% silver up until 1944-45.

Buonadonna

Liboria Bonadonna seated far right showing ring on his finger

Murchison, Australia. 2 March 1945. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned in D2 Compound, No. 13 POW Group. Back row, left to right: 64837 A. Porcaro; 49904 S. Russo; 57220 G. Fino; Unidentified; 45531 V. Di Pietro; 61074 G. De Luca. Front row: 45685 B. Fiorentino; Unidentified; 46171 G. Massaro (holding a piano accordion); 46603 V. Massaro; 55168 L. Buonadonne. Note: The number is an assigned POW number. Photo documentation suggests that names are listed, back row, front row, left to right.

(AWM Image 030229/02 Photographer Stewart, Ronald Leslie)

One ponders, how many rings have survived and are in the collections of Australians and Italians, without their owners knowing their origins.  Liborio Mauro noticed a ring on his grandfather’s (Liborio Bonadonna) finger in a photo taken at Murchison, and he wondered about its origins. He had heard stories of Italian POWs having Australian girlfriends and wondered if the ring might be evidence of a liaison his grandfather had had. Quite possibly Liborio’s ring was a memento, handcrafted from a two shilling coin.

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Australian Florin: Working of Italian POW making a ring

(from the collection of Alex Miles Mooloo)

*Examples of Tek art, made by Australian soldiers can be found in the heraldry collection of the Australian War Memorial.  One such example is the ring below, but the metal used was aluminium.

Miles. Tek 2

Souvenir ring : Private E K Lloyd, 57/60 Battalion

REL27303 Australian War Memorial

Just 19

Umberto Liberto was just 19 years old when he was taken prisoner of war on 7th February 1941 at Benghazi Libya.

These photos were taken in 1941 and 1943.  The photos combined with Umberto’s letter to his mother, gives credence to his words “You will not recognise your son – five years has been a long time.”  Umberto Liberto’s  mother last saw her son when he was 18 years old.  By the time he returned to Italy, he was almost 26 years old.

Umberto’s letter is shared in the article Cara Mamma

Listen to his letter:

Follow Berto’s journey as a soldier and prisoner of war: Berto Liberto

Voices from the Past

The Unexpected

At the beginning of this project, I had a wish list.  It was a simple list: to find one Queenslander who remembered the Italian prisoners of war and to double the number of photos of Italian prisoners of war in Queensland.  The only three photos in the public domain which feature our Queensland POWs  are housed in the John Oxley Library.

My wish list  for one story and three photos has been exceeded many times over.

BUT  I had never expected to find the testimonies of Italians about their time as prisoners of war. This project is honoured to have these testimonies as part of its collection.

 Antonino Lumia’s  story is told in more depth in A Voice from the Past, Fighting in North Africa and Capture.Surrender.Imprisonment .  His grandson Damiano Lumia recorded his grandfather’s memories over 40 years ago ensuring that the voice of the Italian soldier can be heard and that his experiences are not forgotten.

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HAY, NSW. 1944-01-16. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR HAVING A MEAL IN THEIR MESS AT NO. 7 COMPOUND, 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. PICTURED ARE: 46007 ANTONIO LUMIA (1); 45824 BRUNO GALLIZZI (2); 46734 ALMO STAGNARO (3); 48355 GIUSEPPE ARRIGONI; (4); 45087 ANTONIO BACCIGALUPO (5); 46620 MICHELE RIZZO (6); 46626 EMILIO RUOCCO (7); 46635 FRANCO RONDELLI (8); 45900 ALESSANDRO IANNOTTA (9).

(AWM, Image 063371 McInnes, Geoffrey)

Costanzo Melino’sstory is part of a book written and published by his daughter Rosa Melino “Anzaro: The Home of My Ancestors”.  Captured… On the Move and Captured at Bardia share the everyday details of life as a young Italian soldier.  Costanzo returned to Australia after the war with his family following later. Life as a soldier was difficult but life as a ‘new’ Australian presented many challenges for the Melino family.

Q3 Gympie Italian prisoner of war Melino Costanzo

Costanzo Melino c 1940

(photo courtesy of Rosa Melino)

Ferdinando Pancisi is 100 years old and living and working in a tiny village Civorio in Alta Romagna.  Tim Dwyer (ex Boonah) arranged for Tammy Morris and Nicola Cianti to visit Ferdinando (Ferdy) in October 2017.  His memories were recorded on 21st October 2017. They offer a stoic perspective on life, war, death and imprisonment.  Ferdy had worked on the farm of Pat Dwyer Fassifern via Boonah and for over 70 years the Dwyer family have corresponded with Ferdy.  At first it was Pat Dwyer, then his wife Joie and recently son Tim.  This is a special family connection and legacy.  Against all odds, Tim arranged for Ferdy to be interviewed so that his ‘voice’ will never be silenced.

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Anna Pancisi, Tim Dwyer and Ferdinando Pancisi

(photo courtesy of Cathy Dwyer)

Angelo Valianteis a well known and much respected resident of the Stanthorpe district.  His story is recorded in a book, newspapers and a mural painting.  Seizing an opportunity and an offer to have an interview filmed, I travelled with Ann Megalla to Stanthorpe in October 2017 to talk with Angelo about his time as a prisoner of war.

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Angelo Valiante – Mural by Guido van Helten : Stanthorpe

(photo courtesy of Joanne Tapiolas)