Category Archives: Hay PW Camp

POW Camp Order No. 13

February 1944

  • Prisoner of War Camp Order No.13 is published and circulated
  • Mariposa transports 1014 Italian prisoners of war from India to Melbourne
  • Ruys transports 2028 Italian prisoners of war from India: a group disembarks at Fremantle and the the remainder disembark at Melbourne.
  • Italian prisoners of war in Australia total 11051 plus a group of merchant seamen from Remo and Romolo who were first processed as internees and then reassigned as prisoners of war.  In 1941, 4947 had been sent directly from Middle East to Sydney. During 1943 and 1944 transports brought Italian POWs from India.

I have been blessed with much luck while researching Italian Prisoners of War.

I might be researching a topic or a PWCC or a specific POW and one statement or one document will lead me to another and then another and then another.

105

(National Archives of Australia)

The booklet ‘ Prisoners of War Camp Order No. 13’ is one such find. Dated 18th February 1944  it contains eight parts:

  1. Preliminary
  2. Prisoners of War Camps
  3. Maintenance of Discipline
  4. Health and Hygiene
  5. Communication by and with Prisoners of War
  6. Privileges of Prisoners of War
  7. Prisoners of War Awaiting Trial
  8. Unguarded Prisoners

The previous Prisoners of War Camp Orders No. 1 to 12 were repealed upon publication of No. 13.  These orders are of a general nature, as they are the guidelines for the operation of all prisoner of war camps in Australia.

However, more comprehensive and detailed explanations of the operations of prisoner of war and internment camps in Australia can be found with the links below:

The ‘History of Directorate of Prisoners of War and Internees 1939 – 1951‘ is an invaluable document regarding this period of history as is the section Employment of Enemy PW and Internees.

I have also compiled a list of Further Reading  with links to information for India, UK, Zonderwater South Africa, Egypt  and Australian states.

 

Serendipity – Photos of Nonno

Expect the unexpected

Cowra Group Photos 16th September 1943 and 6th February 1944

Hay Group Photos 9th September 1943.

Murchison Group Photos 2nd May 1944 and 2nd and 4th March 1945.

Marrinup Group Photos 29th July 1944.

The Australian War Memorial has an extensive collection of photos featuring Italian prisoners of war. They show the men at work in camp workshops, in the fields and at sport.  There are also group photos which the Italians were allowed to purchase to send home to families.  But there are some complications with searches which I include below.

3915943 Murchison Sport

Murchison, Australia. 2 March 1945. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned in C Compound, No. 13 POW Group. Shown here are: 65915 F. Pieri; 65987 C. Rossi; 65209 G. Baffa; 65710 V. La Rocca; 65370 F. Carone; 65230 E. Baruzzi; 65197 A. Armeni; 65237 F. Battisti; 65300 L. Bruno; 65602 G. Furioli; 65398 S. Cavillin; 65864 A. Pacini. Note: The number is an assigned POW number. (AWM Image 030231/14 Photographer: Ronald Leslie Stewart)

Sometimes you get Lucky

I was searching the Murchison group photos for random photos of silver rings. Silver rings are another story but as I was looking through the photos I found a face I knew.  What are the chances!  This photo did not list the names of the men.  But I was sure I knew him. I had been introduced to Liborio Bonadonna in 2017 by his grandson Liborio Mauro. And I was pretty sure the man seated at the far right was Nonno Liborio.

Bonadonna maybe

Murchison, Australia. 2 March 1945. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned in D2 Compound, No. 13 POW Group. (AWM Image 030229/10 Photographer Ronald Leslie Stewart)

I have been introduced to a number of Italian prisoners of war over the last three years and I know that sometimes, one man will appear in two or three photos, taken on the same day. And I know several of the men below.  Another story.

Buonadonna

Description Murchison, Australia. 2 March 1945. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned in D2 Compound, No. 13 POW Group. Back row, left to right: 64837 A. Porcaro; 49904 S. Russo; 57220 G. Fino; Unidentified; 45531 V. Di Pietro; 61074 G. De Luca. Front row: 45685 B. Fiorentino; Unidentified; 46171 G. Massaro (holding a piano accordion); 46603 V. Massaro; 55168 L. Buonadonne. Note: The number is an assigned POW number. Photo documentation suggests that names are listed, back row, front row, left to right. (AWM 020229/02 Photographer Ronald Leslie Stewart)

Taken seven photos apart, Liboria Bonadonna is seated far right in both photos.  In 549 he is wearing casual clothes but in 557 he is wearing his uniform.  As his name was spelt incorrectly in 549, the photo was found with a search of his number 55168.
Alessandra’s Diligence Paid Off
Alessandra Nicoletti is researching her grandfather’s journey as a prisoner of war: Ermanno Nicoletti.  A search revealed this photo from Hay PW Camp.  Note the words: In this photo are known to be…
Nonno Ermanno is standing first left. And Alessandra also found the face of Agostino Marazzi a family friend.

 

AWM 3880406 Ermanno Nicoletti first left standing (1)

Hay, NSW. 9 September 1943. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POW) interned at No. 6 POW Group. In this group are known to be: 45513 Francesco Del Viscio; 46331 Ermanno Nicoletti; 45852 Italo Gramiccia; 46320 Natale Nunziati; 46207 Valerio Mezzani 45498 Giovanni Di Pinto; 45496 Giuseppe Di Pilla; 46199 Agostino Marazzi; 46511 Alfonso Patrizi and 48922 Sergio Galazzi. Note: The number is an assigned POW number. (AWM Image 030143/26 Photographer Lewecki)

I am not sure  how many photos Alessandra looked at, but she then found Nonno Ermanno is this photo.  He is seated to the left of the man with the piano accordian.  He is holding a guitar. And at that stage in her search, she did not know he performed in operas and plays in the camp.

7278801

Hay, NSW. 9 September 1943. A large group of Italian prisoners of war (POW) interned at No. 6 POW Group. Some of the men are holding musical instruments. (AWM Image 030145/33 Photographer Lewecki)

 

Serendipity… Chance… Fluke…Fate

Many times in this research, things happen randomly. I often tell people “your nonno tapped you on the shoulder and helped you with your search” or ” your nonno made you find this research” as so many outcomes have been totally random. Unfortunately for some families, their questions are still left unanswered.

There is also a randomness in which army documents are archived. Why do WA Italian prisoners of war have a comprehensive and additional folio of documents while Queensland Italian POWs do not?  Often, we have to be satisfied that one knows more now than they did when a particular search began.

Some of the Hurdles

You can search by name or by prisoner of war number but sometimes the names are mispelt or numbers incorrect by a digit.

As well, while the Hay PW Camp photos give the names for the men in the group photos, the position of men is not known.

Additionally, many of the group photos are without names.  So if you are looking for someone, and their name does not come up with a search, you might have to check every photo.  To reduce the number of photos to search, do a check of the dates on the Service Card with the dates of the group photos.

Unfortunately,  Italian prisoners of war coming to Australia in 1944 and 1945 missed the group photo sessions in Hay and Cowra, so unless they spent time in Murchison in 1945, there might not be a photographic record for them.

Cowra Group Photos 16th September 1943 and 6th February 1944

Hay Group Photos 9th September 1943.

Murchison Group Photos 2nd May 1944 and 2nd and 4th March 1945.

Marrinup Group Photos 29th July 1944.

 

 

L’Amico del Prigioniero

It is thanks to Costanzo Melino that I know about L’Amico del Prigioniero. His daughter Rosa wrote Anzaro: The Home of my Ancestors which included her father’s memoirs of his time as a prisoner of war.

Costanzo said, “In 1943, Italy surrendered but we had to go to Australia [from India] to work on the farms.  We boarded an English ship which took us to Melbourne and then eventually by train to Cowra and Hay.  At that time we had an Apostolic Delegate who was from Lecce, also Pugliese, and he gave all the prisoners a book that I still have called the ‘Amico del Prigioniero’ (‘Friend of the Prisoner’’).”

The Apostolic Delegate was Monseigneur Giovanni Panicio and he published this book through Pellegrini, Sydney, 1943.  It is a prayer book written in Latin and Italian containing the service of the mass, important prayers, Catholic Calendar of Holy Days from 1943 to 1951 and hymns.

Holy Days.jpeg

The book being written in Italian and Latin is significant.  As mass was said in Latin until Second Vatican 1965, ensuring that the Italian prisoners of war had a prayer book in Italian was a significant show of concern for  their spiritual welfare.

Also, while the Italians had access to books in Italian in the libraries of Hay and Cowra, when they were on the farm, a book in Italian was an important gesture on behalf of Giovanni Panico.

L'Amico.jpeg

There are six copies of L’Amico del Prigioniero are held in museums and libraries in Australia.  I spent a morning in the Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW and felt honoured to view this special relic pertaining to Italian prisoners of war and internees.

To understand the importance of this prayer book in Latin and Italian, a little background is necessary, “…the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council (also called Vatican II) to discuss how the Catholic Church would face the modern world. Until 1965, all Catholic Mass was said in Latin, and the Church realized that may alienate parishioners who spoke Latin only in church. So the Church had to translate the Catholic Mass into a variety of different languages. from http://www.dictionary.com/e/catholic/

(photos courtesy of Joanne Tapiolas)

1943 Canteen Tokens

1943 saw the replacement of paper money used in internment and prisoner of war camps with metal tokens.  Read a little of this history:

[1943 ‘Canteen Tokens For Internees’, News (Adelaide, SA : 1923 – 1954), 3 February, p. 6. , viewed 03 Oct 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article128330429%5D

In February 1943, the Minister for the Army announced the introduction of metal tokens for use in internment and prisoner of war camps.

Memorandum 3rd March 1943, National Security Regulations, Prisoners of War and Internees – Canteen Tokens recorded: ‘ It is intended that metal tokens shall be used for all prisoners of war and internment camps instead of paper chits.’

Interestingly, New Zealand utilised Australian minted money tokens; a five shilling coin is held in Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa in Wellington.

Tokens for NZ

[NAA:A571, 1941/1659]

Further information on Canteen Tokens

History of Paper Bank Notes, Paper Chits and Canteen Coupons

Internees in Hay Camp 7 produced their own currency, an example can be seen at the Sydney Jewish Museum.  Today, at auction one note can fetch up to $12,500.

Hay Camp Currency with Faith details the currency used and also examples of the paper chits which were used.

Tatura Camp had canteen coupons and Harvey Internment Camp WA also had paper canteen coupons.

Pidgin English for Italians

July 1943

Pidgin English for Italian Prisoners of War

Pidgin English for Italian Prisoners of War

There are many references to the Italian-English language booklet that the Italian prisoners of war were issued with.

Laurie Dwyer from Aratula via Boonah remembers Paul bringing out his book and asking Laurie to help him with learning English: “Paul used the dictionary to try to improve his English but decided that English was stupid.  There were a lot of problems with miscommunication. Paul would wait for me to return home from school and then get out the yellow book they had for English.  Pronunciation was mainly the problem. Paper and pepper sounded the same. He also had difficulty with tree and the.  They had trouble with slang like ‘give it a burl’. One morning dad and the Italians were doing some fencing.  It was time to go home for lunch so dad told them to leave the crowbar there.  The word leave was a problem and they thought dad wanted them to carry it away with them.  Dad would have raised his voice and they thought that he was angry with them.  Paul told the interpreter the next day, ‘boss got mad, I got mad’.  He thought that he would be taken away.  Things were sorted. Another time, the Fordson tractor wouldn’t start so dad went to get the draught horses.  The horses wouldn’t get into the yards and dad would have blown off steam and whatever he said, or it might have been the way he said it, Paul and Peter thought they had done something wrong.  They had a great deal of respect for dad and they didn’t want to get into trouble.  So the next time the interpreter came to the farm, they asked to find out ‘what they did wrong’.  They would explain what had happened and the interpreter would explain what had happened.” (Don’t Run Away)

Dorcas Grimmet in “We Remember: The Italian Prisoners of War 1944/45” a publication about the Italian POWs on farms in the Kingaroy district includes a page from an Italian and English Book for Italian POWs.

And we know that language classes were held in camps like Cowra and Hay.

Pidgin English for Italian Prisoners of War was specifically published  and given to Italian POWs being allocated to farm work under the Prisoner of War Control Centre : Without Guard scheme.  Some of the sections were: Tools, Machinery, Farm Produce, Animals, Hygiene and Medical, Family, House and Conjugation of Verbs.

Hay Camp: March 1943

Hay Prisoner of War and Internment Camp

26 – 29 March 1943

A day in the life of an Italian prisoner of war at Hay PW & I Camp

The details of daily routine are from March 1943. The photographs are used for illustrative purposes and are from November 1942, September 1943, January 1944.

Kitchen

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-16. COOKS AND STAFF AT WORK IN ONE OF THE KITCHENS OF THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. PICTURED ARE: 46915 PRIVATE (PTE) VALTER VINCENZI (1); 46922 PTE GIUSEPPE VEZZIANO (2); 45236 PTE ANGELO CRETI (3); 45070 PTE ENRICO BRUNELLI (4); 46117 SGT PIETRO MAESTA (5); 45180 PTE GINO CALDARELLI (6); 46847 PTE ORAZIO TRICCOLI (7); 46897 PTE FRANCESCO TIRALOSI (8); 45390 PTE CARLO DEL VAI (9); 46512 PTE DOMENICO PANICO (10); 46569 PTE ANTONIO RAGAZZINI (11) 45632 PTE MASSIMO FACCHINI (12); 46585 PTE ALFONSO RONCA (13); 45092 PTE FLORINDO BUSSETTI (14). (AWM Image 063362 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Daily Routine

Day Starts 6 am

Breakfast 6.30 am

Medical Consultation 7am

Roll Call 7.30 am

Depart for Work 8 am

Inspection by Camp Leader 9.30am

Lunch 12.15pm

Depart for Work 1.15 pm

Medical Consultation 5pm

Roll Call 5pm

Dinner 6pm

Lights Out 10.15pm

Hospital

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-16. THE MEDICAL OFFICER AND STAFF OF NO. 7 COMPOUND, 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP OUTSIDE THE CAMP HOSPITAL. PICTURED, LEFT TO RIGHT: 49775 LIEUTENANT (DR) FRANCO FREDA; 48274 PRIVATE (PTE) SANTE PRATICO; 46430 PTE SANTE PROVENZANO; 46010 PTE FRANCO LUPPINO; 45478 PTE MARINO DE LUCA; 46931 PTE GIOVANNI VALENZA; 45205 PTE ALBERTO CIATTAGLIA; 46169 PTE SANTO MOSCHELLA. (AWM Image 63361 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Sleeping Quarters

The barracks are made of timber planks with a tin roof and window panes.  Electric lights are installed. For ventilation and to protect the insides from dust storms and flies, metal screens are installed between the top of the walls and the roof.

Barracks

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-14. THE 16TH AUSTRALIAN GARRISON BATTALION AT THE PRISONER OF WAR (POW) CAMP. A VIEW OF THE MEN’S LINES. ALMOST ALL THE BUILDINGS IN THE CAMP ARE BUILT OF TIMBER, WHICH, UNDER THE HOT CLIMATIC CONDITIONS, ARE OILED ON THE OUTSIDE. THIS SERVES IN THE ABSENCE OF PAINT. (AWM Image 063207 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Between the barracks there are flower and vegetable gardens.  Some men breed rabbits. Some men keep pets such as birds.

Vegetable gardens and chess

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-15. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR RELAX AT A GAME OF CHESS OUTSIDE THEIR HUT AT THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. (AWM Image 063354 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

In Camp 7, the Italians have built grass huts/pavilions to protect them against the sun.

Grass Hut 2

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-16. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR SHELTERING FROM THE HOT SUN UNDER ONE OF THE MANY GRASS THATCHED ROTUNDAS WHICH THEY HAVE BUILT AT THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. (AWM Image 063359 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Each dormitory contains 28 berths. The bedding includes a mattress resting on  metal mesh and 4 blankets. Each dormitory has 12 windows and 2 doors.

Dormitories

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-16. LIVING QUARTERS OF THE ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR AT THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. (AWM Image 063356 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Every man has a shelving for his belongings. The dormitories are swept daily, and once a week the dormitory is emptied and cleaned with soap.

Scrubbign out of huts

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-15. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR AT THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP, WITH THEIR BEDS OUT IN THE OPEN IN PREPARATION FOR THE WEEKLY SCRUBBING OUT OF THEIR HUT. PICTURED, LEFT TO RIGHT: 46720 PRIVATE (PTE) SALVATORE SQUASI; 45236 PTE ANGELO CRETI; UNIDENTIFIED (NOT LOOKING AT CAMERA); 47970 PTE RENATO CORTESI; 46180 PTE VITTORIO MELI; 48255 PTE EDUARDO PIZZI; 45642 ANTONIO FURNARI; 46348 PTE RAFFAELE ORIGLIA; 46980 PTE SALVATORE VALENTINO; 46353 PTE GASTONE PETRONI; 46426 PTE EDMONDO PICCIONI; 48526 PTE DOMENICO LANDADIO; 46864 SERGEANT MAJOR FRANCESCO TUPPY. (AWM Image 063353 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Mess and Kitchen

Each camp has 4 refectories with long tables and benches. The non-commissioned officers of Camp 7 have a special refectory. All refectories are heated in winter.

Mess

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-16. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR HAVING A MEAL IN THEIR MESS AT NO. 7 COMPOUND, 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. PICTURED ARE: 46137 SALVATORE MARRA (1); 46825 OTELLO SILVESTRI (2); 45752 ANTONIO GRAMMATICO (3); 47852 EDUARDO ADORNI (4); 45142 FRANCESCO CUPPARI (5). (AWM Image 063370 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Each camp has two kitchens, each consisting of a large stove room, a macaroni room, a bread room, a food room, a meat room, a vegetable room and a fridge.

Soyer Boilers Kitchen

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-13/14. BATTERY OF COOKERS OUTSIDE THE KITCHENS OF THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. (AWM Image 062927 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Ablutions and Laundry

Each camp has a booth containing 6 hot showers and 16 hot and cold water taps, a booth containing 30 cold showers, and two booths each containing 26 cold water faucets. In hot shower booths, hot water flows all day long.

Laundry 1

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-17. GENERAL VIEW OF THE LAUNDRY AT THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR (POW) DETENTION CAMP SHOWING THE ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR AT WORK. THE LAUNDRY IS EQUIPPED WITH AND ELECTRIC WASHING MACHINE, COPPER, ELECTRIC IRON AND SEVERAL ADDITIONAL COPPERS ARE USED OUT IN THE OPEN. (AWM Image 063501 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Each camp has a laundry booth containing 4 boilers, 14 sinks and 26 hot and cold water faucets, as well as 1 ironing chamber.

Laundry

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-17. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR OF THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR (POW) DETENTION CAMP WORKING IN THE CAMP LAUNDRY. LINEN AND UNIFORMS FROM THE CAMP HOSPITAL ARE LAUNDERED HERE. ALL LINEN, ET CETERA, IN THIS ROOM IS DRYING ON THE RACKS AFTER BEING STARCHED. (AWM Image 063500 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Activities and Canteen

Camp 7 has an empty barrack used as a music room, a school barrack, an administrative barrack and a barracks of handicrafts. Camp 8 has a chapel, a barrack half canteen administration, and a barrack half recreation half manual work.

Chapel

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-16. 45005 LIEUTENANT PADRE I. VIRGILIO IACOBELLI AN ITALIAN ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST, AT THE ALTAR IN THE CHAPEL OF NO. 7 COMPOUND, 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. ALL THE CRAFT WORK IN THE CHAPEL WAS DONE BY THE PRISONERS. PLAYING THE ORGAN IS 45192 SERGEANT MAJOR VINCENZO CAMMARATA. (AWM Image 063360 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Each camp has a barrack reserved for the canteen. There are no bars in these camps.

Canteen

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-16. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR PURCHASING GOODS AT THE CANTEEN IN NO. 7 COMPOUND, 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. PICTURED ARE: 46429 PRIVATE (PTE) FERDINANDO PUGGIONI (1); 46642 PTE ROBERTO ROSSETTI (2); 48444 PTE FLAVIO CERRI (3); 45743 PTE FALIERO GAMBI (4); 46161 PTE ALFREDO MUSACCHIA (5). (AWM Image 063363 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

The school of Camp 7 is installed in an empty barrack. The teaching is done by the priest prisoner of war and deals with elementary matters. The class includes 15 students. Camp 8 school is in one of the refectories. There is no regular class, only that NCOs themselves study elementary matters.

The camps have almost no reading books. Each camp has a theater with stage installed in one of the refectories. An outdoor stage is under construction at Camp 7. Theatrical performances and concerts are organized from time to time. Camp 7 has an orchestra of 10 musicians and Camp 8 has one of 8 musicians. The instruments were bought with the profits of the canteens.

Orchestra

HAY, AUSTRALIA, 1943-09-09. GROUP OF ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR INTERNED AT NO.6. P.O.W. GROUP, WHO HAVE FORMED THEMSELVES INTO THE CAMP ORHESTRA. (AWM Image 030142/02)

Each camp has a large sports field. Practical sports are mainly football, basketball and boxing. Camp 7 has a game of balls and 5 tennis courts.

3905879

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-16. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR ENJOYING A GAME OF TENNIS ON THEIR COURT AT NO. 7 COMPOUND, 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. (AWM Image 063364 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Work

Camp 7 has at its disposal a barracks for handicrafts divided into four compartments – hairdressers, tailors, shoemakers and carpenters.

Bootmakers

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-20. N77562 SERGEANT L. MULHOLLAND (1) NON COMMISSIONED OFFICER IN CHARGE OF THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR (POW) DETENTION CAMP BOOTMAKERS SHOP AND HIS ITALIAN ASSISTANTS WORKING IN THE UNIT SHOP. (AWM Image 063536 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

A model farm and dairy of 120 cows provides milk to all the camps.

Carpentry.Dairy

Hay, NSW. November 1942. Two Italian prisoners of war (POWs) construct the roof of the dairy which is being erected at the camp. The bricks were made by other prisoners in the camp’s brickyard. Rough timber was also cut and transported by the prisoners. (AWM Image 150903 Photographer Harry Turner)

Dairy

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-17. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR MILKING COWS AT THE DAIRY FARM OF THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. ALL THE MILK FROM THE CAMP’S DAIRY IS FOR LOCAL AND HOSPITAL (14TH AUSTRALIAN GENERAL HOSPITAL) CONSUMPTION. (AWM Image 063412 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

The construction by the irrigation canal system of a total length of 90 km has allowed the introduction of the cultivation of many species of vegetables.

Irrigation

Hay, NSW. November 1942. An irrigation canal constructed by Italian prisoners of war (POWs) from a nearby camp. (AWM Image 150892 Photographer Harry Turner)

A poultry farm for 2000 chickens has been constructed.

 

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-17. THE POULTRY YARDS AT THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. (AWM Image 063384 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-17. THE POULTRY YARDS AT THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. (AWM Image 063380 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Bricks for construction work at the camps are made by Italian prisoners of war.

Brick Making

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-13/14. 45161 SERGEANT MARIO CAPORASO, AN ITALIAN PRISONER OF WAR, WHEELING A BARROW LOAD OF BRICKS FROM THE MOULDING SECTION TO THE DRYING ROOM AT THE BRICK MAKING PLANT AT THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. (AWM Image 062935 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Breach of Discipline

Service and Casualty Forms for the Italian Prisoners of War make great reading.  I have given up counting how many forms I have read since I started this research in August 2015 but there is so much information that can be gleaned from these forms.

And several thousand forms later I can give you an insight into the nature of the breaches in discipline and the punishments meted out.

Some make sense eg fine 1/- for fastening ground sheet to bed, while others seem harsh eg. 28 days detention for stealing a bunch of grapes.

And some, make me laugh eg stealing lettuce plants… maybe this Italian  just wanted a few plants to add to his private garden outside his barracks;  and what about the bravado of the Italian who was smoking on parade.

But military discipline was essential and indiscretions punished.

Ferrante

(NAA: MP1103/1 for DF)

For some Italian POWs, their breach in discipline resulted in formal investigations. The three incidents below are from Western Australia.  Queensland POWs were much more meek and mild!

The following statement is made by a POW placed at the same farm as a Raffaele.  The farmer also ran a boarding house:  This family have always treated us with great courtesy and consideration but this rascal [Raffaele] for a long time has done nothing else but to annoy all the women who have stayed in this place… On another occasion [name redacted] and I were near our room when [ name redacted] came to us and asked the whereabouts of Raffaele. We told her we did not know as we never see him at night time as he goes away and returns after midnight. [ Name redacted] not taking any notice of us then stepped into [Raffaele’s] room and sat down and wrote a letter and left it on the table after leaving.  On [Raffaele’s] return from his walk he read the letter did not even stop to finish meal went away and did not return until after midnight.  If I had to tell all that [Raffaele] has done it would make a romantic novel. 11 October 1944.

An incident in the Northam area of Western Australia saw the award of 28 days detention: Conduct to the prejudice of good order and discipline in that he behaved in an unsolicited manner by endeavouring to show Mrs C obscene magazine photos and by giving her a box upon which obscene drawings had been made.

Another incident reports reads as follows: At 17.30 hours the prisoner came to me and asked if he would feed the calf, to which I answered yes.  He then asked me in his Pidgeon English if I would ? him the milk, I went through the house to the backdoor whist the Prisoner went around the side.  When I arrived and opened the door he approached me with both his arms open and said “Oh, Missus.” plus other Italian phases which I did not understand.  I could see the man was very excited and I slamed the door in his face… My husband had been away all day …During the lunch hour the Prisoner remained what I considered an unnecessary time in the kitchen after having had his meal, during which time he kept muttering to me in Italian, none of which i could understand. It appeared strange to me that this man should remain behind whilst the other Prisoner after having his meal went straight to his camp.  No charges were laid on this matter and the POW was transferred to another farm.

Without a doubt, prisoner of war files make great and interesting reading.

Following are some of the ‘run of the mill’ type breaches in discipline and subsequent punishments:

14 days: stealing

2 days: stealing lettuce plants

5/- fine: failure to appear on parade

1/- fine: late to work

168 hours detention: wilful damage to CWG property

14 days detention: possession of prohibited article

21 days detention: taking employer’s car without permission

14 days detention – 3 days No 1 diet: refusing to work, inciting other POWs to slow up work

7 days detention: boots worn beyond repair

6 days fatigues: conduct to the prejudice of good order and disciplien

3/- fine – offence against good order and discipline

14 days detention: making unfound complaints about working

7 days detention: attempting to steal 1/2 lbs butter

14 days detention: removed 1 dz bananas from supply depot

1/- fine: failure to appear at inspection parade

28 days detention: communicating by signs with a person outside the complex, making a threatening gesture to officials.

72 hours detention: proceeding beyond boundary of place of employment

1/- fine: wasting water

3 days detention: pretending sickness to avoid work

7 days detention: attempting to evade censorship

168 hours detention: smoking on parade

7 days detention: failed to stand by kit during inspection

5/- fine: being in possession of government property

Admonished: carrying letters between compounds

28 days detention: failed to answer Roll Call

28 days detention: escaped from Hostel

28 days detention: unduly familiar with a female

3 days detention: breach of National Security Regulations

14 days detention: disobedience, violence

5 days detention: offensive behaviour

14 days detention: did adopt threatening attitude