Category Archives: Western Australia Italian POWs

Made by his Hands

Made by his Hands

Antonio Arici was sent to Mukinbudin WA to work on the farm of  Norman Maddock.

A wooden box made by Antonio was too heavy for him to take home to Italy.  Or maybe he left it behind because the POWs had been issued instructions as to how much luggage they could take with them.  It is still lined with remnants of magazine pictures he decorated the inside of the box with.

Antonio's Wooden Box WA Open

It has been kept in the Maddock family for over seven decades. Bert Maddock who was a teenager at the time assumes that it was made from demolition timber sort from unoccupied houses in the area.  These houses were purchased by his father, dismantled and the timber used to construct a new home for the Maddock family.

Made from Jarrah timber,  the tongue and groove sections used by Antonio would have been walls of the derelict houses and possibly there were sections not used to build the new house.

Read more about the Maddock and Arici families: Antonio’s journey 

Antonio's Wooden Box WA closed

And 73 years later…

One special family reunion

And 73 years later, the Arici and Maddock families celebrate a reunion.

Franca and Augusta (daughters of Antonio) Camilla, Davide Dander, Maurizio Dander with Sophie Maddock
(photo courtesy of Davide Dander and Sophie Maddock)

Antonio Arici was 29 years old when he went to work on the farm of Norm and May Maddock at Hill View via Mukinbudin. In December 2017, Antonio’s grandson Davide Dander began his research journey for his grandfather when he asked the question: Can you help me?

Antonio left the Maddock farm on 15th January 1946 and on 24th June 2019, Sophie Maddock from Western Australia stepped off a train at Brescia Italy to visit the Arici family.

Sophie is the great grandaughter of Norm and May Maddock and her grandfather Bert Maddock remembers Antonio from when he lived at the family farm. Bert and his wife Jocelyn are unable to make a trip to Italy but Sophie was more than happy and very honoured to visit the Arici family.

History connects people and events, often in unexpected ways. Australia and Italy. A farmer and a prisoner of war. 1940s and 2010s. War and peace. But there is one special similarity: families who share the same values; importance of family and respect for everyone.

Different countries. Different backgrounds. Different decades. Different circumstances.

One special family reunion

A Chance Find

And a journey of discovery begins…

I received an email from Giulia Musini recently. Giulia wrote,

“Today I found this fabric napkin embroidered from a soldier prisoner in India. This little historical treasure was in an op shop in Western Australia. I was hoping to find the family of Antonio Fracasso, the soldier that embroidered this. Maybe through your page I can reach some experts or people related to Bangalore prisoners.”

Fracasso. Embroidery A XIX EF

Embroidery by Antonio Fracasso

(Photo courtesy of Giulia Musini)

Giulia had visited a second-hand charity shop in Witchcliffe Western Australia. “I was digging in the op shop and I saw the Savoia flag and the Italian writing … it was so touching I couldn’t leave it there forgotten in a pile of other stuff,” Giulia wrote.

After a little digging and emails to and fro, Antonio’s story emerges.

There were two Italian prisoners of war named Antonio Fracasso. Both were from Lecce region in Italy and both had spent time in prisoner of war camps in India.  One Antonio worked on farms in New South Wales while Giulia’s Antonio worked on farms in Western Australia. The first piece of the puzzle emerged.

The next part of the puzzle was how did Antonio’s embroidery end up in an op shop at Witchcliffe!

Captured at Bardia on 6th January 1941, 24 year old Antonio Fracasso was sent to India until his arrival in Melbourne onboard Mount Vernon 27th April 1944. The date on the embroidery, June 1941, indicates that his time in prisoner of war camps in Egypt was brief.

From Melbourne, Antonio was sent to Murchison Victoria for processing before being sent to Marrinup Western Australia on 14th June 1944.

Antonio Fracasso’s Service and Casualty Form highlights that he worked on farms in the district of W11 Prisoner of War Control Centre (PWCC) Kellerberrin (29th July 1944 to 8th December 1944) and W8 Margaret River (21st January 1945 to 14th November 1945).

And here is another piece of the puzzle, the proximity of Witchcliffe to Margaret River: 7 – 8 kms.  We know from other farming families, that the Italians gifted hand-crafted objects to members of the farming families as a gesture of gratitude.  Probably, 73 years ago, Antonio gave this napkin/handkerchief to his W8 Margaret River farming family.  Subsequent generations of the family did not realise the historical importance of the embroidery and its connection to the family and along with other linen, donated it to charity.

The significance of Giulia’s chance find is more poignant as Antonio Fracasso was never to return home to Italy.  Antonio died on 20th December 1945 while swimming in a dam on a farm at Corrigin.

Fracasso nla.news-page000003772085-nla.news-article44836696-L3-411333eda8c04fd18bd70e831559d833-0001

“DROWNED IN DAM.” The West Australian (Perth, WA : 1879 – 1954) 26 December 1945: 7. Web. 1 Jun 2019 <http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article44836696&gt;.

Giulia is now trying to locate a family member of Antonio.  A stumbling block is the places recorded as his residence in Italy: Canaleuco Lecce and Casalano Lecce.  Unable to find either places on a map, Casarano Lecce might be the town.  Giulia has already made contact with the shire office of Casarano and surprisingly her email reached a gentleman named… Antonio Fracasso.

Giulia is hopeful she will find her Antonio’s family as she says, “I wish to bring this piece of Antonio home. We are moving there soon in Puglia, so close to where he was born. I feel he can finally, some how, go back home.”

Antonio’s embroidery was meant to be ‘rescued’ by Giulia. Her passion for history, Antonio’s story and Giulia’s return to Italy and the region of Antonio’s birth means that this chance find couldn’t be in safer hands.

Further information….

  1. A missing piece in the puzzle is what was Antonio doing on a farm at Corrigin, when his record has his last known whereabouts as Marrinup POW Camp. While there was no prisoner of war control centre at Corrigin, there were centres at W17 Kondinin and W15 Yearlering. It is likely that the farm of Mr WJ Keays was in one of these centres, where Antonio was transferred to work but he died before his record card could be updated.
  2. The newspaper article has Antonio’s surname as Saldato. Soldato = soldier. Someone only had half the story or was misinformed.
  3. Antonio Fracasso rests in The Ossario at Murchison Victoria.
  4. Givgno 1941 A XIX EF = Anno 29 Era Fascista. The Fascist Calendar began on 29 October 1922 and is written with Roman numerals.
  5. eta piu bella; giorni piu tristi = most beautiful age;  most sad days

Piccola Guida

31 March 1945
Davide Dander was researching his grandfather’s footprints as an Italian prisoner of war in Australia. Grandfather Antonio Arici had kept a number of items from his time in Australia which had all but been forgotten about.  This cache includes several books and private librettos.
Antonio Arici Piccola Guida per gli Italiani in Australia

(Photo courtesy of Davide Dander)

Davide via his mother, sent me a photo of the cover and a page of one such book.  But this Piccola guida was a puzzle to me.
Here was a book telling the POWs about Australia: the climate, the major ports, information about the economy, banking and postal services. Surely the authorities did not want the POWs to know about how to set up a bank account in Australia, which is one section in the book.
The POWs were not allowed to have maps or Australian currency or post letters privately.   Yet the type of information contained in this book would  assist if the POWs wanted to escape!
As is normal for my research journey, one thing leads to another.  With a bit more digging around I found the following information about this book.
Piccola Guida per Gli Italiani in Australia was written by Padre Ugo Modotti December 1944.  He worked closely with the Italian migrant community in Melbourne from 1938 to 1946.  He wrote this booklet for the Italian migrants.
On 9 March 1945, the Directorate of Prisoners of War was aware of this booklet  and on 31 March 1945 approval was granted to distribute Picolla Guidi per Gli Italiani to the Italian prisoners of war in Australia.
By 1945, there was a relaxation in how the Italian POWs were viewed.  While they were still POWs, they were not considered a high security risk.  It was also a time when the Italians were thinking about life in Australia after the war and requesting permission through their farmers to stay in Australia and not be repatriated.
A guide for Italian migrants to Australia, this book gave the Italian POWs information to prepare for the time when they would return to Australia as migrants and free men.

Farmer Supports POW Scheme

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Life on the Farm… November 1944

(photos courtesy of AWM and individual contributors)

In response to a negative newspaper report on the POW workforce, Mr Male in Western Australia submitted a letter to the editor in support of the POW farm placement scheme.

A question is often posed: How do you quantify the value of the Italian POW workforce?  Mr Male is able to provide the answer.

Italian POW.

Mr L B Male, of Redmond, in writing of his Italian prisoner to the ‘Albany Advertiser’ certainly boasts the Ities as workers, Mr Male says:-

“I have had a POW since the inception of the scheme, and am well satisfied.  In fact, I can honestly say he is the best worker I have had on the place.  he works voluntarily from 5 am to 7 pm, and if necessary I am prepared to give a detailed account of his work, day by day.  Only dissatisfaction I have heard is from farmers who haven’t got any Italian labourers.

“It is said that some farmers think the military authorities nurse them too much.  Well, such is not the case as far as my Control Centre is concerned.

“They are very firms with both POW and employer, but are exceptionally fair to each.

“In my particular case, I was unable to obtain labour for three years.  Result: Fences not kept in repair; grass paddocks overgrown; calves running with cows that should be milked; only half the potatoes planted previously; and the farm generally going into a decline.  I thought I was going into one too!

“Now I have the farm back to normal, or even better than it was before the rot set in, and it is solely due to the work done by a POW in less than 12 months, with the co-operation received from the POW control centre.

“I have conversed with at least 20 employers of POW between Mt Barker and Albany, and not one of them has ever mentioned being dissatisfied.”

(Beverly Times (WA: 1905-1977), Friday 17 November 1944, page 4)

1944 ‘Italian POW.’, The Beverley Times (WA : 1905 – 1977), 17 November, p. 4. , viewed 09 May 2018, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article202749325

Can you help me?

It started with a message from Italy via Facebook on 2nd December 2017:

Hi! I found these documents about my grandfather in the Australian Archives, but I can’t understand too much of the document. Can you help me?

And it has ended with a reunion* of the Arici family in Ghedi Brescia Italy with the Maddock family in Mukinbudin Western Australia.

Antonio Arici was 29 years old when as an Italian prisoner of war in Australia, he was transferred to the farm of Norm and May Maddock at Hill View via Mukinbudin. The writer of the above message is Antonio’s grandson Davide Dander, also 29 years old. As a tribute to his grandfather, he is retracing his grandfather’s footsteps in Australia. Davide’s research has lead him to Mukinbudin and Bert Maddock, son of Norm Maddock, who has clear memories of Antonio working on the family farm.

Step by step, the Arici family is finding Antonio’s footprints. Arriving in Melbourne Victoria on 26th April 1944, Antonio was one of 4069 POWs in a convoy of three transport ships from India.  Antonio spent time at Murchison PW & I Camp Victoria before being transferred to Marrinup PW Camp WA on 4th June 1944 along with 1099 other Italian POWs.

These 1100 were destined for farm work in several Prisoner of War Control Centres. Allocated to W19 Prisoner of War Control Centre Koorda, Antonio’s first placement was with Mr S Goodchild Mukinbudin from 16th July 1944 to 8th November 1944.  He was then transferred to the farm of Mr Norman Maddock on 8th November 1944 until 15th January 1946.

Antonio Arici PW Identity Card

Identity Card for Antonio Arici

(NAA:K1174 ARICI, Antonio)

Norman’s son Bert Maddock was a teenager when Antonio stepped onto the family farm. Bert’s wife, Jocelyn provides the backdrop to Antonio’s journey:

 “The farm at Hill View had been taken up by Norm Maddock in 1929 and had to be developed by cutting down the bush.  He did a small amount of cropping but livestock mainly sheep were his chief source of income, so Antonio would have been involved helping with these activities… Norman also had a few cattle and of course a milking cow… Bert, my husband would have been about 15 when Antonio worked on the farm and he recalls going out into the bush with Antonio to cut timber railings to build horse yards.  Antonio had a comfortable hut – made from corrugated iron and containing his bed, a cupboard, a fireplace, a couple of chairs, a small table and a bath tub.  He had all his meals with the family.  The hut had originally been built for another worker who enlisted when the War began.”

Jocelyn relates that Bert and his sister Doreen, “both of them remember separately a Sunday when Antonio and another POW from a neighbouring farm cooked the evening meal for the family and it was pasta.  This was the first time any of them had tasted pasta as it was then not a usual dish in Australia…They remember Antonio as a ‘good bloke’ which is high praise indeed and means pleasant, friendly, trustworthy, a reliable helper on the farm and respected.  Indeed most people who employed Italian POWs speak of them in these terms.  Bert has a wooden box which Antonio left behind in his Camp – it was probably too heavy to take.  It is not a large box and was empty.”

Government records further confirm Bert’s memories of Antonio.  Notated on one of these forms are the words: A good worker with a cheery disposition.  Highly regarded by employers. 

Antonio took home to Italy a few mementos of his stay in Western Australia.  Two of them take pride of place, displayed on a wall in a daughter’s home: a felt hat and a whip.  Jocelyn mentions that “we find the picture of the hat and whip intriguing.  All the men on farms wore similar felt hats as a general item of clothing in all seasons so it may be the one he [Antonio] had on the farm. Whips were not general use on the farm … Bert surmises the whip in your [Davide’s] photo is a sulky whip used by his Grandfather George Maddock as George’s possession were brought to the farm after he died.”

Antonio Arici. Hat and Whip from WA 

Hat and Whip belonging to Antonio Arici

(photo courtesy of the Arici family)

After leaving the Maddock farm, Antonio arrived at the Northam PW Camp on 21st January 1946.  It wasn’t until 17th October 1946 that Antonio boarded the SS Katoomba for his repatriation to Naples.

Antonio’s daughter Franca continues retracing her father’s footsteps: “…[he] arrived in Naples on 23rd November 1946, from Naples, with the train reached northern Italy, his hometown, Brescia and the village of Ghedi.  He resumed the activities left before the war, working in the countryside as a farmer and herdsman, helping the family and his brothers.  In November 1954 he married my mother, Agnese, and the next year his first daughter was born. Immediately and almost constantly, my father asks my mother to move to Australia.”

An extract from a letter written by another Italian POW, Donato Caruso, working on Oscar Miell’s farm in the Mukinbudin district explains the impressions the Italians had of Australia and the reasons why Antonio wanted to move to Australia:

“Here one lives well.  There is everything to eat that one wants.  I hope I can return here at the end of the war.  There is enough land for all ITALY to be lodged here.  Here the farmers could live till they reached a hundred.  There are no hoes, the ground is worked with horses and tractors.  The climate is good (better than there). There are all conveniences, and nothing is missing.  The country is flat plain and a lot of wheat is lost on the ground. Wheat which we badly want.  Nothing is missing as regards enjoyment.  There is everything that one desires.”

Franca Arici says that, “the years spent in Australia had remained in the heart of my father, who always told of the past moments with great nostalgia; life as a prisoner of war should not have weighed too much in his memories, instead leaving the place to stories of boundless landscapes, meeting with people who respected him and considered him positively even if he were in a subordinate position… it is a beautiful, serene, nostalgic memory of my father’s and the desire to return to Australia has always remained alive in him, it certainly owes to the good treatment received on the farm that hosted him [Maddock farm] and we are very grateful to your family [Maddock family].”

The other mementoes Antonio kept from his time in Australia are a few librettos. Italian prisoners of war working on farms were provided with a copy of Pidgin English for Italian Prisoners of War published by the Department of Army. It contained a list of common words and phrases relevant to life on a farm as well as pronunciation guides.  The other book was written specifically for Italian migrants but by the end of 1945, the Department of Army allowed for its distribution to prisoners of war considering migration to Australia: Piccola Guida  per gli Italiani in Australia. This handbook gives descriptions of Australia’s climate and geography with practicalities such as opening a bank account. As well, it included comprehensive English language instruction.

Franca Arici talks about her father’s librettos and “His [Antonio’s] passion for the English… he had brought and kept with love from Australia his notebooks of English and during the winter evenings he would often read from them to us [his daughters].”

Antonio Arici Piccola Guida per gli Italiani in Australia 

Piccola Guida per gli Italiani in Australia belonging to Antonio Arici

(photo courtesy of the Arici family)

Like many Italian POWs who had a dream to return to Australia, circumstances prevented their migration.  “My mother’s seamstress work, family ties, bureaucratic and economic difficulties have prevented my father to fulfil his life dream to bring his family to Australia,” Franca relates.

Antonio was only 57 years old when he died on 19th July 1973, leaving behind his wife and family of four daughters.  But through the decades, his daughters have remembered their father’s dream to return to Australia and now are visiting Australia and Antonio’s life on a Western Australian farm through the memories of the Maddock family and the government records.

Antonio Arici and Family 1964.jpeg

Arici Family 1964

Back row: Agnese, Franca, Antonio and Elena

Front row: Maria Augusta and Luigina

(photo courtesy of the Arici family)

Franca reflects, “Now rediscovering you [Maddock family], allows us to ‘compensate’ our father for that desire which he had to give up and from heaven he will surely smile at us…”

Antonio Arici.jpeg

Antonio Arici

(photo courtesy of the Arici family)

And the last words to this journey belong to Davide, Antonio’s grandson who at the same age as his grandfather took a journey* to Australia to walk in his grandfather’s footsteps.

Davide had started with the question ‘Can you help me?’ On receiving the news that the Maddock family had been found and that Antonio was remembered, David wrote:

“oh my god!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! scusa non riesco a scrive in inglese dall’emozione, spero che google translate faccia un buon lavoro.

grazie grazie grazie davvero,!!!!! grazie ancora con tutto il cuore

Grandson Davide Dander.jpeg

Davide Dander, grandson of Antonio Arici

(photo courtesy of Davide Dander)

*Technology (Facebook, Google translate, email and internet searches) has enabled Davide and his family in Italy to ‘travel’ to Australia and retrace the footsteps of Antonio Arici: Italian Prisoner of War as well as ‘meet’ the Maddock family and be reunited with Antonio’s past.

Marrinup: May 1944

Marrinup PW Camp No.16 was in operation from August 1943 to July 1946.  It was built to house 1200 Italian and German prisoners of war.

The footprints of the camp are still visible today in the concrete foundations and barbed wire at the site: POW Camp Marrinup Trail

Marrinup PW Camp was the parent and administrative camp for all prisoners of war in Western Australia.  Italians en route to their farm placement in one of the 27 Prisoner of War Control Centres (PWCC) or work placement in one of 4 Prisoner of War Control Hostels (PWCH) had time at Marrinup.  Identity Cards were issued at Marrinup and all mail was processed through the camp.

Garizzo

Identity Card for Giuseppe Garizzo

(NAA: K1174)

In May 1944, a comprehensive report was written by an independent delegate on behalf of the International Red Cross.  Some of the pertinent points relate to cigarette issue, recreational activites and correspondence.

The layout of the camp was dependant upon the terrain of the site and is very different from the hexagon layout of Hay, Cowra and Murchison PW Camps.  It was also a much smaller camp than those on the east coast of Australia.

Marrinup 2

Marrinup: Plan of PW Camp No. 16

(NAA: K121430/32/4)

Marrinup 1

Aerial View of Marrinup Prisoner of War Camp

(www.wanowandthen.com/Marrinup.html)

Correspondence

As per regulations, Italian prisoners of war have the right to dispatch the following number of letters and cards:

Fighting staff … 2 letters or 2 cards per week, or a letter and a card.

Protected staff … 2 letters and 2 cards per week.

A major concern for the Italian prisoners of war related to not receiving news from their families.  This is causing a great deal of anxiety. [May 1944, the allies were fighting the Germans at Monte Cassino.  Rome was liberated on 4th June 1944]

During the month of April 1944, the men  sent 2715 letters, of which 415 were sent by airmail. Airmail charges were at the expense of the prisoners of war.

However, in the same month, the prisoners of war of this camp, and including all the centres of control in Western Australia, received only 217 letters and 2 packets.

At the time of the visit, military authorities announced that 73 letters from Italy have arrived for prisoners of war in Western Australia.

Prisoners of war have the avenue to enquire through the International Red Cross for information about their families.

Reading Material

The camp did not  have a library but it was noted that prisoners of war had the option of acquiring books of their choice, subject to the approval of the camp commander. They could also receive Australian newspapers and periodicals which are censored but not cut.  Since many prisoners of war did not have adequate English, the main need was for Italian books.

Australian Red Cross, Division of Western Australia had been contacted and assurances were made that efforts to buy Italian books would be made.  Arrangement was made for   the purchase of 50 English-Italian dictionaries.

Movie Theatres and Radio Broadcasts

Movie theaters are allowed. But equipment is not in place.

From time to time, concerts and theatrical sessions are organized for the Australian Garrison and prisoners of war are allowed to attend these evenings.

The camp has a gramophone and a number of discs.

Radio broadcasts were allowed BUT  the apparatus and the installation had to be at the expense of the prisoners of war and the broadcasts are controlled by the commander of the camp. No radio is in place.

Recreations and sports

The camp had a table tennis. A small sports field is located at a distance of about one kilometre from the camp. Another large piece of land is five kilometres from the camp and prisoners of war go there on Sunday.

Other Items of Note

The precautions against air strikes have not been considered necessary in the camp, given the security of the area in which they are located.

Prisoners of war have the right to wear their uniforms and rank insignia. They have the opportunity to celebrate their national and patriotic festivities.

Kitchen and Mess

The refectory is furnished with long tables and benches; it has electric light. The refectory is heated in winter.

Canteen is in a special hut is reserved for the canteen.

The kitchen is in the same barracks as the refectory. It includes a room for meat, provisions and a cooking.

Regulatory rations of Italian prisoners of war included meat, bread, potatoes, onions, legumes, butter, lard, cheese, jam, sugar, milk, tea, coffee, salt, pepper, rice, barley, blue peas and macaronis.

The menu is set by the prisoners of war themselves within the limits set by the regulatory rations.

Noodles and macaroni are made in the camp. A vegetable garden provided a supplement of vegetables.

V-P-HIST-E-00223.JPG

Camp Marrinup September 1943

(ICRC V-P-HIST-E-00223)

Living Arrangements and Ablutions

The dwellings of this camp are composed of raised huts, with doors and shuttered windows.  The dormitories are six men per hut. The bedding includes a wooden bed, a bench and 5 covers. The dormitories are filled with shelves for personal effects. The lighting is in oil. Officers share a hut with one other non-commissioned officer.

The dormitories are swept daily, and once a week a soap cleaning is carried out.

Marrinup 4

Footprints of Marrinup Prisoner of War Camp

(www.wanowandthen.com/ghost-towns14.html)

The shower stall contains a cloakroom, two hot showers, four cold showers and eight cold water faucets for ablutions.

The shack of the toilets contains six covered seats and two urinals. A closed compartment is reserved for non-commissioned officers.

Marrinup-22 Laundry

Footprints of Marrinup Prisoner of War Camp

(www.wanowandthen.com/ghost-towns14.html)

The laundry room consists of a boiler, two sinks and four hot and cold water taps.

Meet some of Marrinup’s Italian Prisoners of War

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Image 030213/04 Marrinup, Australia. 29 July 1944. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned at Marrinup POW Camp. Back row, left to right: 59611 Rocco Ciocia; 48326 Antonio Saponaro; 47616 Tripolino Nunziati; 63279 Angelo Nenciolini; 49260 Francesco Iodice; 47775 Domenico Vallone. Front row: 48556 Renzo Menicucci; 48631 Franco Riva; 48343 Enrico Varone; 48381 Alfredo Bertini. Note: The number is an assigned POW number.

Image 030123/02 Marrinup, Australia. 29 July 1944. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned at Marrinup POW Camp. Back row, left to right: 49724 Narciso Tognarelli; 45340 Carlo Consalvo; 59646 Nicola Di Sciullo; 59250 Giovanni Risi; 47908 Ugo Bottone. Front row: 59139 Dante Maranca; 59227 Vitaliano Parentela; 59109 Giuseppe Luongo; 59985 Giovanni Sera; 59110 Gaetano Lanzetta. Note: The number is an assigned POW number.

Image 030123/03 Marrinup, Australia. 29 July 1944. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned at Marrinup POW Camp. Back row, left to right: 58185 Francesco Maellaro; 48123 Francesco Gallone; 59224 Vincenzo Palma; 47640 Agostino Perna; 59614 Cosimo Collecola; 59822 Michele Parisi. Front row: 59820 Gabriele Licenziato; 60045 Giuseppe Vitucci; 48599 Giocondo Orciani; 59997 Lorenzo Scaccaborozzi. Note: The number is an assigned POW number.

Image 030123/07 Marrinup, Australia. 29 July 1944. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned at Marrinup POW Camp. Back row, left to right: 46213 Vincenzo Muto; 59989 Fioravante Speranza; 59871 Antonio Massimo; 49202 Giuseppe Scanella; 59870 Francesco Mascia. Middle row: 59279 Cammillo Spada; 59309 Giovanni Salvi; 59102 Rosindo Ingolingo; 59884 Raimondo Nicolai; 59674 Nicola Di Sciorio. Front row: 59064 Michele Conte; 56964 Nicola Settani; 48682 Angelo Terlizzi; 59645 Beradino D’Alessio; 62003 Pasquale Criscuolo. Note: The number is an assigned POW number.

Image 030123/05 Marrinup, Australia. 29 July 1944. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned at Marrinup POW Camp. Back row, left to right: Unidentified (only half shown); 47640 Agostino Perna; 47916 Domenico Cammarano; 48748 Domenico Chiono; 59046 Giuseppe Andretta; 47908 Ugo Bottone. Front row: 47501 Giuseppe Giuffrida; 59458 Filippo Ciconte; 59301 Luigi Savini; 48999 Emanuele Piro.

The above information is compiled from a report written by the delegate for the International Red Cross who visited Marrinup 18 to 21 May 1944.