Author Archives: Joanne in Townsville

Miracoli di Internet!

 

My research into Italian prisoners of war in Queensland has a number of public faces: the book Walking in their Boots, the website: italianprisonersofwar.com and the facebook page: Prigionieri di guerra Italiani in Australia

It was through the facebook page that I received notification from Nino Amante in Italy. On 23rd March 2018, Nino wrote, “Sono il figlio di Angelo Amante, il più alto nella foto.”  Nino had not only found a photo of his father on the facebook page but he then found the website’s article, A Day in the life of …  and comments about his father’s time working on a farm ‘Redslopes’ at Goomboorian via Gympie 72 years ago.

This was an accident. Nino had been searching the internet for an article about his son, named for his grandfather, Angelo Amante, and instead found his father. Nino was overwhelmed.

I believe that things happen for a reason.  I do not know the chances of bringing together the son of an Italian prisoner of war and the son of a Goomboorian farmer. But a google search and a phone call* has brought together the two sides to this history.

Nino Amante’s words and contact has brought this story ‘full circle’. “E’ stata per me una grande emozione avere delle informazioni da aggiungere a quelle raccotle dall sua viva voce, quando mi parlava del period della sua prigionia,” Nino reflects.  Nino not only has knowledge about his father’s time on this farm, but he has a connection to Jim and John Buchanan who were young boys at the time and who have fond memories of Angelo.

More importantly, Angelo’s story before and after ‘Redslopes’ emerges.  At 19 years old, Angelo Amante began his military training, first in Turin and then in Bolzano.  He was a member of the 7th Reggimento Bersaglieri(marksmen).  He was then transferred to Taranto and in 1941, he left Italy by ship for Libya.  He was lucky to survive the journey to Libya, as many soldiers died after the fleet was bombed by the British.

Angelo Amante (1)

Angelo Amante: 19 years old

(photo courtesy of Nino Amante)

Angelo was captured at Gialo, a Libyan oasis town on 25th November 1941. Gialo was taken by British and Punjabi troops on 24th November 1941, but a small group of Italian soldiers continued fighting in the north east  El Libba sector.  After four hours of combat, two Italian had been killed and 27 Italian soldiers were taken prisoner.

Possibly the photo  below of a relaxed Angelo was taken at Benghasi, his first experience of Libya. Like many of his generation, Angelo spent ‘his youth’ in foreign and difficult circumstances. He returned home to Italy when he was 25 years old. Nino explains, “Sei dei suoi anni piubelli trascorsi fra guerra e prigionia.”

Angelo Amante (3)

Angelo Amante in Libya 1941

(photo courtesy of Nino Amante)

Angelo’s journey is like many of his peers.  Italy to the battle field to Egypt to India to Australia to Italy.  Angelo arrived in Melbourne Australia 29th December 1943. The next day he was in the Cowra PW & I Camp.  His time there is recorded in a group photo Cowra 6th February 1944. Ten days later, Angelo was sent to Gaythorne Queensland 16th February 1944.

A Amante standing first left

Cowra, NSW. 6 February 1944. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned at No. 12 POW Group. Back row, left to right: 57037 A. Amante; 57273 G. Guarnaccia; 57288 G. La Iacona; 57252 S. Giambusso; 57051 C. Avola; 46957 S. Vizzini; 57257 G. Giarratano. Front row: 57268 M. Gordini; 57070 L. Bloisi; 57046 R. Armentano; 57038 S. Amoroso; 57226 D. Foringo. Note: The number is an assigned POW number. (Australian War Memorial Image 030173/15)

Before Nino’s internet search, he had one photo and the stories about his father’s time in Australia, but he did not know dates or places.  Nino says, “Sapevo che mio padre era stato in Australia, ma in quale parte di Australia? Che era vissuto in una fattoria, ma quale fattoria?”  But his time in Australia was always remembered with fondness, a place to which Angelo wanted to return.  In 1956, Angelo made preparations to emigrate to Australia with his wife and family. During a medical visit, it was discovered he had a small heart problem and his dreams of going to Australia ended. But his family kept safe a small photo of three men and two boys, knowing that it was an important part of Angelo’s memories of Australia.

Angelo Amante (2)

Angelo Amante , Salvatore Scicchitani (Schichitano), Vincenzo Cannavo with John and Jim Buchanan at Redslopes Goomboorian via Gympie

(courtesy of Nino Amante)

For over seven decades, this photo  did not have a context.  Nino knew that the photo was from his father’s time on a farm, but he did not know where in Australia this farm was located. Angelo told his family a story about chilli plants he had grown on this farm and now he knows it was Jim, a little boy who tasted the chilli with severe repercussions.  Angelo told his family about a trip to the city, to undergo a medical visit at the hospital and the wonder of seeing so many kangaroos on the way.

Jim’s memories and Angelo’s stories to his family are being slotted together. Nino writes that his father arrived in Australia from POW camps in India with very poor health. Angelo had contracted malaria and Nino remembers the story of  an old lady on the farm who realised the seriousness of his condition and encouraged him to eat and the need for him to regain his strength.    Jim knows exactly who this lady was, his Aunty Mag [Margaret], who was the matron (supervisor) for the Land Army girls on the farm.  Angelo’s visit to the Gympie Hospital is recorded in the farm diary: August 21 1944 – Angelo going to hospital.   And the stories travel back and forth between Italy and Australia and across the decades.

Upon Angelo’s return to Italy, he made his way home to Fiumefreddo di Sicilia and his widowed mother.  Angelo married in 1953 and moved to Mascali, his wife’s home town.  He continued to work the land and raised his family: Nino and Giuseppina.  In 1984, Angelo passed away at the age of 63.

Angelo Amante (4)

Angelo Amante

(photo courtesy of Nino Amante)

The sharing of stories and memories, the answering of questions and the ‘Miracoli di Internet!’ is like finding those missing pieces in the jigsaw puzzle and finally being able to put them in place.

*In September 2017, I telephoned Jim Buchanan in Gympie.  I had been told that he was the person to speak to about some of the Italian prisoners of war in the Gympie district.  Jim’s words to me were, “I think you will be surprised with what I have to tell you.  I don’t think you will have found another one like this.” And surprised I was!

Jim’s father Neil Buchanan had kept a farm diary for ‘Redslopes’ at Goomboorian. Peppered through the entries from 7th March 1944 to 1st January 1946 are references not only about farm life, but also to the Italian prisoners of war at ‘Redslopes’. This diary offers a very unique and firsthand account about the employment of Italian prisoners of war.

On 24th March 2018, I telephoned Jim again.  I told Jim that I had some extraordinary news for him. Angelo’s son had sent me an email.  It took a few minutes for the news to sink in. Jim is rarely lost for words. I said to Jim, I wonder if Angelo took any photos home to Italy with him.  Nonplussed, Jim felt that this is not probable as very few photos were taken in those days.   Like Nino Amante, this journey for the Buchanan family is emotional and remarkable.

A Day in the Life of…

 

Buchanan Brothers purchased land on Webster Road and established ‘Redslopes’ at Goomboorian outside of Gympie in 1937. The partnership consisted of Malcolm (Boy), Neil, Eric and Ivon but by 1944, Malcolm was a pilot with the RAAF based in England, Eric had joined the AIF and was serving in New Guinea, Ivon had moved to East Palmerston and Neil was responsible for keeping the farm going.

Gympie (10)

Redslopes 2017

A remarkable insight into farming during World War 2 is written in the hand of Neil Buchanan who wrote daily entries into the farm diary.  This diary offers up the details of a day in the life of: a war time farm, a farmer and his family, the Italian POWs and the Land Army girls (LAGS).  Each page reveals invaluable first hand information written of the time.

Gympie.Buchanan.1962.Margaret and Neil

Margaret Goodall (nee Buchanan) and Neil Buchanan 1962

Time fades the memory, but the Redslopes diary offers a window into the past.  It recounts daily life on a farm during war time: the list of jobs, rationing, the arrival and departure of Italian POWs and LAGS, the hardships, machinery breakdowns, the weather, important war time events.

The first two Italian prisoners of war to arrive at Redslopes were Angelo Amante and Vincenzo Cannavo on 7th March 1944.  Antonio Ruscio joined them on 5th April 1944.  The diary tells of trouble amongst the POWs and Antonio left and was replaced by Salvatore Scicchitani (Schichitano) on 26th September 1944. Vincenzo (Vince) became lead hand at catching the horses and ploughing as the diary mentions this many times.

 

Gympie.Buchanan.Redslopes.Irrigation

Irrigation at Redslopes 1944-1945

The POWs routine was guided by the seasons of farming life.  They attended to the jobs of chipping, hoeing, hilling, thinning, pruning and propping. They thrashed and graded seed, they planted seedlings and they made cases.  Papaws, beans and cucumbers were the main crops, but they also tended tomatoes, pineapples, a trial of bananas.  They shifted irrigation pipes and cleared fence lines.  They assisted with packing and loading crates and going to town to unload produce and get haircuts. Their home ‘Coogoolum’ looked out onto the red dirt slopes of Goomboorian in a quiet and idyllic setting.

The Italian POWs arrived at Redslopes on 7th March 1944 and departed on 1st January 1946. And because of Neil Buchanan’s daily entries during this time, a detailed picture emerges about ‘A Day in the Life of an Italian Prisoner of War on a Queensland Farm’.

March 7 1944

Spent half a day preparing Coogoolum for reception of POWs. Made trip to Gympie, taking in parts of tractor for repairs, & bringing out a load of empty case in addition to POWs.  The new men are causing great confusion so far and no headway has been made in grasping their language. Hot fine day.

Gympie (4)

 Redslopes looking out from the site of the POW Home Coogoolum 2017

March 8 1944

Boss & two new men chip most of new papaws near mangoes.  Two men make fair impression, but are obviously very soft after years off work.  Language difficulty partly overcome.  Fine & warm, clouds. Started up irrigation engine. Luc brought down cows  & took some home.

March 9 1944

Today broke rainy & activities had to be confined to case making & reassembly of tractor. Two POWs prove quite satisfactory on case making. Tractor now ready for service again.  Turned off irrigation engine when tanks were nearly full.  Perrys put in about 7 hours again doing can enclosed area and parts of six acre.  Measured 21 pts rain.

March 10 1944

Perrys put in another six hours ploughing but were paid off, thus finalising a very costly experiment £12-9 for practically nothing. One POW continues case making, 48 cases for the day. Other introduced to disc plough, proving fairly satisfactory.  Boss does some ploughing, puts tractor over proposed sec 1 beans, but a mishap real or imaginary caused returned to shed.  Fine, measured 11 pts.

March 11 1944

Further attempts to have ploughing done by POW prove his inability to use mouldboard so Boss used same half day.  POWs finish chipping mango, papaws make cases and use pole disc on site of possible section 3 beans.  Boss reassembles tractor, proving trouble imaginary.  Hosed out radiator tubes and did 2 acres of ploughed ground in, tractor not boiling and being greatly improved. Westerly wind.

March 12 1944

Sabbath. Spent hour or so conferring with POWs. Visit from Blackwoods occupied most of day.  Also visit from Rosslynites and from F Hinds to purchase circular saw. Still hot and dry, high drift presaging rain.

March 13 1944

Furrowed nearly an acre of ground for tomatoes and more than an acre for beans.  Fertilised much of same. POWs ploughing & case making. Visit from POW Control with interpreter.  Fine and very hot and dry.

March 14 1944

Finished fertilising 56 rows of beans to be planted in a week or so.  Dragged rolled and started to plant half an acre of carrots.  Vince does another half day on plough, Angelo on case making, two on chipping during evening.  Fine, dry & very hot.

The diary continues… work… allocation of jobs… coming and goings of casual staff and LAGs…visits to town… quantity of produce taken to town… trouble with the POWs… LAG demands and unrest… POWs requiring medical attention… crops grown…irrigation and machinery breakdowns…

Major events are also recorded

April 7 1944  Good Friday. Correctly observed by POWs

April 12 1944 … Men continue and finish chipping papaws.  Unloaded truck of case timber brought out yesterday.  Visit from POW control, men start to batch with some repercussions on their behaviour…

June 20 1944… Redslopes diary is being written by electric light at last.

July 21 1944 Signed up for a new 3 ton V 8 truck

Sept 1 1944… Had enjoyable half hour of cricket at POW headquarters.  Took delivery of new diesel engine.

Sept 11 1944 Reached 2000 cases of beans for season.

Sept 20 1944 had a lamentable row with a couple of girls (LAGS) following last night’s trouble.  After a shake up all around things seems to be okay.

Oct 9 1944… 90 cases papaws, 42 beans, 20 cucumbers, the biggest tonnage ever sent in produce

Nov 25 1944 … news of brother’s death

Dec 4 1944 Highest papaw price 50/- per case

Jan 14 1945 Eclipse of the sun…

Jan 17 1945 Shifted radio from Dwyers house to PWs…

Feb 16 1945 Bought shirts for prisoners

March 7 1944 PW Birthday today, second year…

March 16 1945 prisoners day in town marred by being left at barbers shop too long.

March 17 1945 Boss & one POW spent whole day assembling and erecting pump head at well.  Captured a porcupine for benefit of Ities.

May 8 1945 Day of great announcement of cessation of hostilities in Europe

May 9 1945 VE Day. Today we observed a holiday in honour of VE Day.

July 5 1945 News of PM John Curtin’s death this morning

Aug 7 1945 Dramatic news today of first ‘Atomic Bomb’ being dropped on Japan.

Aug 10 Made 2 trips today for first time in history

Aug 14 1945 Japan is still keeping the world guessing.

Aug 15 1945 The great day that has been waited for for years.  Japan announced acceptance of surrender terms early this morning and all Australia has gone wild today. 2 days holiday has been declared.

Sept 24 1945 … POWs in town today for monthly haircut, unpleasant experience of getting caught with them in restaurant…

Nov 26 1945 Took in load as usual, PW going as well.  Canteen day for latter, news of departure for Italy being made public.

Dec 25 1945 Xmas Day. Made presentation of watches to POWs

Dec 28 1945 Took Ities for last haircut.

Dec 31 1945 Last day of old year.  Four men for half a day.  POW then finish up, much to sorrow of Boss.  Had final talk with Ities at night.

Jan 1 1946 New Year’s Day but a sad day at Redslopes.  Took the three POW to town and said goodbye. Farm is now badly understaffed with no prospects of further employees.

Gympie.Buchanan.Salvatore.Vincenzo.Angelo

Goodbye to Redslopes

1st January 1946: Salvatore, Vincenzo and Angelo

Language Lessons

It is March 1944 and Jack Stewart of Rocky Glen Muradup employs two Italian prisoners of war: Gino and Giuseppe (Joe).  There is no doubt that language would be an obstacle for both farmer and worker.

It is interesting how authorities in Western Australia approached the language barrier.

Pidgin English for Italian Prisoners of War had been prepared and distributed by Department of Army across Australia, but HQ Western Command prepared a separate language booklet with specific industry related sentences. A great deal of effort had gone into this booklet with sections such as: rabbit extermination, shearing, cement work, work around the house.  It also contained vocabulary lists: English – Italian; Italian English.

W4 Prisoner of War Control Centre Kojonup issued a language booklet prepared by HQ Western Command.  (photos courtesy of Alessandra Garizzo)

It is obvious that this booklet was to assist the farmers to communicate instructions to the Italians. The phonetic pronunciation in Italian is provided.

Garizzo language 1 (3)

Instructions for Shearing including Marking and Dipping and Potato Growing

(photo courtesy of Alessandra Garizzo)

Giuseppe Garizzo (Joe) had an interest in learning English.  Using a dictionary, Joe would teach himself English by reading the newspapers.  In December 1944, Jack Stewart purchased a  Grammatica Encidlopedia for Joe. The receipt for the book was one Joe’s treasured possessions from that time.

Garizzo Language Book Receipt

Receipt from Foreign Library and Book Shop Melbourne

(photo courtesy of Alessandra Garizzo)

Possibly, Jack Stewart read an advertisement like the one below from a Perth newspaper, wrote a letter requesting a booklist for Italian and then purchased Grammatica Enciclopedia.

1944 Advertisement

1944 ‘Advertising’, Sunday Times (Perth, WA : 1902 – 1954), 3 December, p. 7. , viewed 22 Feb 2020, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article59326615

 

Louie Made Me a Cap

Gordon Plowman remembers a cap made by an Italian POW for him. This one memory has helped tell the story of the Italian POWs at Flaxton.

Flaxton is a farming district between Mapleton and Montville on the Blackall Range in the Sunshine Coast hinterland. Bananas, citrus fruit and later pineapples were the main crops of the district.  The other main industry was sawmilling.  Gordon’s father Ray in partnership with other locals set up a small mill making cases for the fruit and then later established a hardwood sawmill.  During the war, they also became charcoal producers, as charcoal was in demand for the charcoal burners to run vehicles. It was a small community, with a population of 155 in 1947.

Gordon relates, “I was born in 1940 and vaguely recollect ‘Louie’ who worked on a pineapple and citrus farm.  He made a little cap for me and I well remember the tassel which hung down the back.  He gave it to my mother and said, ‘For the Bambino’.  In later years I tried to find Louie through the National Archives but was told without his family name, this would be impossible.”

But this project Footprints of Italian Prisoners of War in Queensland is about making the impossible, possible. And Gordon has now ‘found’ Louie.

Louie was Luigi Caputo a young farmer from Montagna di Basso Potenza. He is seated in the photo below, first on left.  His military record highlights he was married with a daughter.  Louie was sent to the farm of FW Potts and DB McHaffie Flaxton on 5th March 1944 together with Francesco Tozzi from Reino Benevento.

Q2 Nambour.Flaxton Caputo Luigi POW

AWM Image 30173/06 Geoffrey McInnes

Cowra, NSW. 6 February 1944. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned at No. 12 POW Group. Back row, left to right: 47904 M. Bello; 45091 C. Bono; 47434 F. De Venuto; 57496 G. Sinisi; 49432 S. Cristiano; 46264 N. Monteleone; 57291 M. Laricchia. Front row: 45349 L. Caputo; 57302 F. Liberto; 57414 A. A. Palladino; 57324 M. Macchia; 57210 A. Fato. Note: The number is an assigned POW number.

“My brothers Harold (13) and David (16) would take these POWs swimming in Bon Accord.  They would come over of a Sunday afternoon, Mum would give them a drink and some cake and they would battle their way through the forest with my two brothers to cool off in Bon Accord rock pool.  In the 1940’s it was hidden away in thick scrub with no walking tracks,” Gordon adds.

Three other Flaxton farmers employed POWs and snippets of memories are remembered by Gordon and his brothers.  There is a memory of the wine made with pineapples by the Italians at Frank Mayne’s farm.  Quinto Bernacchi, Giuseppe Berrettini, Ippazio De Blasi and Carlo Maffei all worked on this farm.  Most likely Quinto and Giuseppe were the wine makers as they were on the farm for  seven months while Ippazio and Carlo had a one week placement.  Norm and Honour Mayne also welcomed the Italians onto their farm in Flaxton with Biagio Peluso and Pasquale Serafini spending eight months at Flaxton.

JR Perkins employed Guerrino Fregni, Giovanni Isopi and Guerino Lombardozzi.  Gordon adds another memory about Mr Perkins’s POWs: “I remember that a heavy hessian curtain at the end of his packing shed was out-of-bounds because this was the entrance to the POWs living quarters, which I imagine would have been very basic.  At that time we had no electricity, sewerage or reticulated water,” Gordon reminisces.

Another recollection of the Flaxton POWs is about church.  With no Catholic church at Flaxton, the Italians would be picked up by the authorities and taken to the Catholic church in Nambour.  Gordon mentions, “According to my brother, one of them was not a catholic and used to object most strongly at being taken to church.  The Italian POWs were respected and made generally welcome in the small Flaxton community and I recall by mother speaking highly of them.  I never forgot the little cap Louie made for me.”

 

Public Perceptions

History needs to be written with balance and perspective.  War is complicated.

The system which placed Italian prisoners of war to work and live on farms was a necessary strategy to keep ‘food on the Australian table and in the bellies of US and Australia military’.  As our young Australians joined the military services, farmers were left without a farm labour workforce.  The labour shortage situation was dire.  War Cabinet documents convey this view.  It was imperative to keep farms operational.  With 18,000 Italian sitting idle in camps,  allocating the Italians to farms, was a matter of supply and demand.

BUT more importantly,  placing the Italians on farms, was a major benefit to their physical, emotional and metal health. With no barbed wire, these men settled into a familiar routine in a family environment: there was work to be done, attention to keeping their accommodation clean and orderly, cooking of meals, growing of vegetables in small plots, new skills to be learnt and new farming techniques to be mastered.

The other side of this history is the resentment and prejudice of many Australians. Criticism ranged from Italians being treated favourably in local hospitals to resentment that the POWs could buy items from the canteen truck that were unavailable to the civilian populations eg. canned peaches, chocolate.

The following report highlights some of the complaints in Smithton, Tasmania.  This is an example of ‘name and shame’…

NAA P617, 519 3 151 PART 2 Page 116

(NAA P617, 519 3 151 PART 2)

The newspaper Smith’s Weekly was well known to headline anti-Italian and migrant sentiment from 1919 through to 1950. Its criticism was therefore not only aimed at Italian prisoners of war but Italians in general. The below article highlights one of Smith’s Weekly’s complaints.  The full article is available via the link below:

Petrol f or Luigi

1944 ‘PETROL TO DRIVE LUIGI TO CHURCH’, Smith’s Weekly (Sydney, NSW : 1919 – 1950), 18 November, p. 1. , viewed 06 Feb 2020, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article235761465

Prisoners Eat; Guards Starve relates to the Italian prisoners of war who travelled by train to Sydney December 1946. They were in transit to board the Alcantara for repatriation to Italy.  I think that the Italians POWs would have been able to see the humour in this situation.

1946 Dec 23 The Telegraph

1946 ‘Prisoners Eat; Guards Starve’, The Telegraph (Brisbane, Qld. : 1872 – 1947), 23 December, p. 7. , viewed 06 Feb 2020, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article187263650

Letters from the Past

Many letters written by Italian prisoners of war are held in private postal history collections and Queenslanders’ family history collections. I am grateful and honoured that these letters have been shared with me and have become a comprehensive dossier of prisoner of war letters.

Letters written by the Italian POWs after they left the farms, talk of the health of the family, the state of the harvest and farm work,  the POWs that they were still grouped with, news that they would be going home soon, or that they are still waiting to go home, reflections on the kind treatment given to them by the farming families and reflections on leaving Australia and returning home. Two cousins, wrote a thank you letter to their farmer apologising for some of their bad behaviour which was never aimed at the farmer, but more at their situation.  They closed with gratitude for the kindness the family had shown them and the gifts they were given.

If there had been children in the family, there is a request for the farmer to send a photograph of the children, words about how much they missed the children, questions about how the children were going or growing, and wishes of being back on the farm with playing with the children instead of being in camp.

Angelo Capone wrote to Mr Bury on 16th January 1946 from Gaythorne. Written with a beautiful hand, the sentiments are simply worded but heartfelt.

Letter to George & Gwen Bury, from Angelo Capone 1946 (1)

 

Letter Written to Mr Bury Beerwah from Angelo Capone 1946

(letter courtesy of Rosemary Watt)

Letters written by the Italians to their families are interesting.  While the men had to be careful of what they wrote (due to censorship), their words are always about concern for their families.  One Italian’s wife must have had a disagreement with her sister-in-law, which she had communicated to her husband, because his reply to her was that they would have to sort it out because he could do nothing about it.  There were always questions about sending news of the situation in their home towns, questions about who had died and comments as to the length of time it has taken for mail to reach them.  Other common messages were: longing to see the family again, the years of separation will be forgotten once they reach home, and  five years of separation might mean mums and children might not recognise them.

A lovely sentiment of the day is ‘I close with the pen, but not the heart’.

A summary of the relevant regulations regarding prisoner of war mail is as follows:

Four types of stationery were approved for the use of a prisoner of war in Australia.

  1. Notelopes which was a combined notepaper and envelope
  2. Postcards
  3. Parcel Acknowledgement cards
  4. Address Cards

Italian POWs were entitled to mail 2 letters or 2 postcards or 1 letter and 1 postcard per week.  Protected personnel could send 2 letters and 2 postcards per week.

From 1942 the YMCA provided  Christmas cards for the prisoners of war.

CArd 1944 natale

1944 Christmas Card

Post cards and letters could be sent airmail, at the expense of the POWs.

‘Express Messages’ could additionally be sent through the International Red Cross services.  This service was reserved for POWs who had had no communication from their next-of-kin in three months.

Monthly messages not exceeding 25 words could be sent via His Excellency the Apostolic Delegate in Australia.

Address Cards (Capture Cards) were made available to POWs to send not later than one week after arrival at their camp an/d or in the case of sickness.

Censorship of POW mail ceased from 10th November 1945 but camp commandants had discretionary powers.

Resourceful

Resourceful is an apt description of Mario Marino.  A stone mason from Pentone Catanzaro, as a prisoner of war in Australia, he nominated his occupation as ‘bricklayer’, a more versatile job.  Throughout his life, he continued to work with concrete, stone and bricks in the construction industry in Morwell Victoria owning his own business and operating as Marino Bros.

Among the first 2000 Italian POWs to be shipped directly from Libya to Sydney onboard Queen Mary, from Sydney he was trained to Hay. He travelled with two compatriots also from Pentone, Salvatore Tarantino and Graziano Mustari.

As a ‘skilled’ POW, Mario was put to work in construction at Hay Prisoner of War and Internment Camp.  Put to work making clay bricks, Mario spent over two and a half years at Hay before being sent to Cowra. He also had experience in surveying and did surveying for clearing and road building while at Hay. Salvatore was sent to Murchison and then V4 Leongatha while Mario and Graziano stayed together in Cowra then Gaythorne.  Their Queensland farm allocations had them sent in different directions: with Mario going to the farm of R Brown at Bapaume in Q1 Stanthorpe area and Graziano to Q3 Gympie area.

Marino, Hay

Hay, NSW. 1944-01-13/14. Sergeant M. Marino an Italian prisoners of war stacking freshly made clay bricks in the drying shed at the 16th Garrison Battalion Prisoner of War Camp

(Australia War Memorial Image 062932)

It appears that Mario’s resourcefulness had him reallocated to a Victorian farm in the V4 Leongatha area.  Interestingly, Salvatore also was at V4 Leongatha at the time and they both spent time together at V22 Rowville.

Repatriated to Italy in January 1947, it wasn’t long before he married Marietta and made plans to return to Australia. He left Italy onboard the Toscano in June 1949 and his first son Antonio was born in July 1949.  It would be three years before he would meet his first born child, when his wife and child arrived in Melbourne in 1953.

The  Carmody family of Leongatha had been Mario’s POW employer and sponsored his return to Australia. Settling in Leongatha, Mario was joined by his brothers Giuseppe and Angelo. All three brothers worked at the Wonthaggi State Coal Mine in the latter part of 1951.  Giuseppe drove the horse and cart which took coal out of the mine on railway lines, Mario was a seamer, lying on his stomach in cramped confines shovelling out the coal and Angelo would stack the coal tightly in the kibbles. Vince Moranti was a family friend who also worked with the Marino brothers in the coal mine.

Built between 1953 and 1954, the Traralgon Hospital construction site became Mario’s new workplace.  Continuing working in construction and concrete, he then established himself as a concrete contractor and won council contracts such as footpath building.  By 1954, Mario applied for naturalization and in 1955 his naturalization was reported in the newspaper.

Not forgetting his POW compatriots, Mario sponsored Salvatore Tarantino in 1955 and in 1956 Graziano Mustari also migrated to Morwell. Graziano however returned to Italy in 1964.

A growing migrant community in the district opened an opportunity for Mario to branch out into a food emporium  in Church Street Morwell, selling salamis, coffee, cheeses and other continental goods.  He diversified further by taking his shop to the farmers of the district and his children remember the box of juicy fruit chewing gum kept in the truck.

Returning to construction, Mario continued to work in the industry until his retirement. A supporter of the local football club, the Morwell community held him in high regard and he would always be asked to join the trainer and coach at home games.

And of those days as a prisoner of war, Mario told his family that as soldiers in the sands of Libya, Mussolini gave them little hope and only a pistol with one shot and a rifle with another.  The soldiers were half starved and they didn’t have a chance. But his time as a prisoner of war in Australia opened the door to a new start in life for his family.

Resourcefulness and optimism were trademarks to Mario’s life.

 

Marino, Mario 1955

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic.: 1849-1957) Thursday 17 November 1955

 

 

 

 

 

Where is Popanyinning?

A farm in the wheat growing district of Popanyinning WA was home to Enrico Riga for two years from March 1944 to March 1946.

Enrico Riga working on a farm in WA (photo courtesy of Maria Riga)

From Lamon Belluno, Enrico was captured on 5th April 1941 in Addis Abeda, Abyssinia before being sent to prisoner of war camps in India.

Enrico arrived in Fremantle Western Australia on the Ruys.  This was the only ship to disembark Italian prisoners of war on the west coast of Australia. The ship boarded 2028 Italian prisoners of war in Bombay destined for Fremantle and Melbourne. 

The town of Popanyinning was originally given the name: “Popaning”; the local Aboriginal Noongar word for waterhole.  It was built alongside the Great Southern Railway line, servicing the wheat and sheep farmers in the district.

The photo of Enrico captures the landscape, the vegetation of this part of Australia as well as the work he did while living with a farming family.

Enrico was repatriated on the Chitral on 30th September 1946.

1946 ‘2500 ITALIAN P.O.W. LEAVE ON MONDAY ‘, The Daily News (Perth, WA : 1882 – 1950), 27 September, p. 10. (HOME EDITION), viewed 13 Aug 2021, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article78267376

Popanyinning is referred to as “Hard to Say, Nice to Stay”. 

I hope that this is how Enrico might have remembered his time in the district: it was a funny word to pronounce but it was a good place to live and work.

Welcome Sign for Popanyinning

(photo courtesy of Gordon Stewart)

Home on the Farm

1944

Prisoner of War Quarters on Queensland Farms

Living arrangements for the Italian POWs who worked on Queensland farms were inspected and approved by the commanding officer of the Prisoner of War Control Centre.  Recollections of Queenslanders mention a variety of living arrangements for the Italians ranging from: sleeping on the verandah in the farmer’s house, sleeping in quarters built within a shed or barn, self contained cottages which had previously been labourers’ quarters and a stand alone building specifically constructed for the POWs. One of the excluded arrangements was ‘living in tents’. Please keep in mind that the buildings below are over 70 years old and no longer used as accommodation.

Some of the quarters still stand and continue to be reminders of those days.

Boatfield.Goat Shed.jpeg

 Ol’ Goat Shed at the Boatfield Farm Amiens via Stanthorpe

(photo courtesy of Paula Boatfield)

Herbert William Boatfield’s farm was situated at Amiens and the farm had been Soldier Settlement plots of 55 acres.  Records show that he employed Andrea Lapa from Barletta Bari and Luigi Gardini Catanzaro. Paula Boatfield says that the shed was later used for angora goats, hence the nickname for the building.   Paula relates, “On our property is a building that we affectionately call the ol’ goat shed, because when Brett’s parents worked the property as a working orchard, they also had angora goats who lived in the goat shed and yards attached to it. The eastern wall of the ol’ goat shed has three doors (see photo) and the story was that when the Italian POWs were working on Harslett farm (our neighbour), when the authorities would visit the farm the POWs would come up here to our place and three of them each had a room in our ol’ goat shed. I don’t know how true this story.”

Prisoner of War Hut on the Sauer Farm Upson Downs outside of Gayndah

(photos courtesy of Joanne Tapiolas)

Colin Sauer had two farms: Upson Downs and Bananpan across the river. This cottage is situated on Upson Downs.  Documents record that he employed Antonio Iaccarino, a barber from Mondo di Procido; Giovanni Farina, a farmer from San Giovanni a Teduccio Napoli; and Fortunato Franco, a mason from Bovalino Reggio Calabria.  Due to its historical significance, Colin’s grandson, Colin Wenck stands steadfast that the cottage will not be pulled down.

Boonah.Harsant.Pintabona

Workers Cottage at the Harsant Farm Warrill View via Boonah

(photo courtesy of Joanne Tapiolas)

Roderick Harsant’s farm is at Warrill View via Boonah.  Francesco Pintabona from Taviano Lecce; Domenico Masciulli from Palmoli Chieti; Salvatore Mensile from Siracusa Sicily; and Vincenzo Nocca from Modica Ragusa all spent time at the Harsant farm.  Roderick’s son Ian says that the cottage used to be on the banks of the creek which is prone to flooding.  To preserve this special link to Francesco Pintabona, Ian had the cottage moved and raised to protect it from future flooding.  Ian’s grandson Jack muses,

“If only walls can talk!”

Jones.Janette.Dorothy

Janette and Dorothy Jones in front of Prisoner of War Accommodation

at Rural Retreat Severnlea 2018

(Photo courtesy of Joanne Tapiolas)

From Official Records

It is important to note that independent representatives eg Red Cross visited the POW camps and also the accommodation on farms. Reports were written and in March 1944, farm accommodation in N2 PWCC Parkes and N5 PWCC Canowindra were visited.  Italian POWs had been working on these farms for six months. Extracts from this report follows:

This farm has one prisoner of war. It has a maisonette with electric lights The bedroom includes an iron bed, a mattress, a pillow, pillow cases, bed sheets and four blankets. The room is furnished with a dresser, a chair and a rug. The prisoner takes his showers in the farmer’s house. He take all his meals with the farmer’s family.

This farm has two prisoners of war. They are lodged in a tin shack, lit by the oil lamp. The bedding includes wooden beds, mattresses, pillows, bed sheets and four blankets each. The hut is furnished with a table and stools. The meals are taken in the same house where a wood furnace is installed. Ablutions are done at the laundry.

This farm employs two prisoners of war. They are housed in a separate maisonette, including a bedroom and a veranda. The room is furnished with stools and shelves. The light is electric. The bedding includes wooden beds, mattresses, pillows and four blankets each. Ablutions are done at the laundry. Meals are taken with the farmer’s family.

This farm employs three prisoners of war. They have a small house furnished with tables, stools, cupboards and oil lamps.  The bedroom had iron beds, mattresses, pillows and four blankets each.  The ablutions are made in the kitchen of this house.  The meals are taken in a little room in this house.

The conclusion of the report includes recommendations:

In general, we have found that prisoners of war enjoy working on private farms. Their lodgings varies according to the possibilities of each employer, but the food is  good and abundant, and the relations between the employers and the prisoners of war are cordial.

Problems of language are difficult, with employers only knowing English, and prisoners of war generally making little progress in the study of that language.

We believe, therefore, that Prisoners of War have a great need for Italian books and periodicals. However, it is not possible to procure them in Australia now. We have taken this up with the Apostolic Delegate who, while assuring us of his entire sympathy, informed us that he saw no way of finding Italian books on the spot.

We have obtained from the Red Cross 150 English periodicals which we have sent to the centres of Parkes and Canowindra. On the other hand, the National Secretary of the YMCA  has just informed us that he has placed at our disposal 500 English periodicals to be distributed in the centres of control in Victoria. This effort will be continued, and we hope to be able to provide illustrated English periodicals in all Australian control centres.We have also consulted the Military Authorities, who have given their approval that small libraries of these illustrated periodicals be set up in each control centre.

Another important problem concerning Italian prisoners of war is that of family news. Indeed, in recent months, the number of letters received from Italy is extremely low. We offered our services to the prisoners of war to forward any request for family news.

Mittagong, 27 May 1944 (NAA: A989)

Nambour.Schulz. Itys Hut 5 (2)

Schulz Farm Image Flats via Nambour

(photo courtesy of Martin Schulz)

 

 

 

 

Salt Harvest Project Laverton

Salt havesting at Laverton during WW2 is a history lesson in itself.

Allied Works Council – Italian Ex-Internees – Italian Prisoners of War – Laverton Hostel

Salt Harvesting 1943

In February 1943, there was a real concern that the salt harvest would not be possible unless labour was found.

MEN NEEDED FOR SALT HARVESTING

GEELONG. — The salt harvest began here today, but the manpower shortage is so acute that the District National Service Officer (Mr J. H. Hamlyn) is awaiting final instruction to make a special call-up in Class 4 for men from less essential industry to help in the harvest. At least 100 men are required locally and 60 at Laverton. Where Cheetham Salt Co. has extensive settling pans.

The manpower position at Laverton is even more difficult than at Geelong where a start was made with about 25 men.The work must be done against time, as a break in the weather may cause the loss of a harvest essential for munitions*, as well as a food commodity. The loss of the harvest would also hold up the industry in the winter, when the company’s factories are usually operated at capacity.

FACTORIES CLOSED

To permit a start today It was necessary to close the factories and transfer employees to the harvesting. Manpower authorities believed they would obtain the release of a number of men from district military camps and others from less essential industry, but these have not yet been obtained. Outside staffs of district municipalities are assisting but It may be necessary. In addition to a special call-up, to engage a number of volunteers who formerly harvested In this district, on a part-time basis. This will not be altogether satisfactory as the work requires skill and Is more difficult, than that which the volunteers have previously done.

Hardly any manpower is available for the Laverton harvest.

1943 ‘MEN NEEDED FOR SALT HARVESTING’, The Herald (Melbourne, Vic. : 1861 – 1954), 8 February, p. 3. , viewed 05 Feb 2020, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article245965857

Ex-Internees Harvest Salt 1943

A labour force of Italians was sent to Laverton to alleviated the labour shortage. This group of Italians had been interned. Three of these Italians were from Halifax and Macknade North Queensland.  They had been arrested in 1942, processed at Gaythorne Internment Camp and sent to Cowra for internment.  In February 1943, they were released to AWC (Allied Works Council) Victoria.

A release from internment, did not necessarily guarantee a return to their home and families.  For Giuseppe, Giovanni and Paolo they were then sent to work harvesting salt at Cheetham.  The AWC Salt Works Camp broke up on 14th May 1943.

Ex-Internees Harvest Salt 1944

A workforce of Italian ex-Internees was again utilised for the 1944 salt harvest.  The Italians were dissatisfied and adopted a ‘go slow’ campaign. The article explains the situation:

1944 Go Slow

1944 ‘ITALIANS AT SALT WORKS’, The Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 – 1954), 8 February, p. 4. , viewed 03 Feb 2020, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article206786756

This workforce of Italian ex-internees was replaced by Italian prisoners of war.

Italian Prisoners of War Harvest Salt 1944

A number of entries in the War Diary for L.H.Q. Melbourne for 4.3.44,  discuss the use of Italian prisoners of war to harvest salt. On 17.3.44  59 Italian prisoners of war were transferred to Laverton (Temporary) Hostel: C.S.W. Laverton.  The salt harvest finished in June and 60 Italian POWs were transferred to Murchison PW Camp.

Laverton 3.3.44

(AWM Adjutant General 6 (a) Prisoners of War Adjutant General 13. March – May 44)

Laverton List of Prisoners of War 1944

Italian Prisoners of War Harvest Salt 1945

Italian prisoners of war are were again employed to harvest salt, this time during the 1945 season.  The Cheetham Salt Works had purchased a mechanical harvester.  The 1944 Italian prisoners of war had worked at  50% capacity.  The Salt Works hoped that the Italian prisoners of war together with a harvester would ensure that salt would be harvested in 2 months. The 1945 harvest took 3 1/2 months: Italian prisoners of war worked on the salt harvest from February 45 to 1.7.45.

Laverton 17.2.45AWM Adjutant General 6 (a) Prisoners of War Adjutant General 13. January  – March 45

1945 POW Labour - Copy

1945 ‘RACE TO GET IN SALT HARVEST’, The Herald (Melbourne, Vic. : 1861 – 1954), 21 February, p. 5. , viewed 03 Feb 2020, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article245343563

The Laverton (Temporary) Hostel which provided accommodation for the Italians was located at Werribee as the article below indicates.  Francesco Fuda was assigned to Laverton Hostel on 27.2.45.

1945 escape

1945 ‘ITALIAN PRISONER ESCAPES’, The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 – 1957), 9 March, p. 4. , viewed 03 Feb 2020, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article1095687

Laverton List of Prisoners of War 1945

*I am interested to know about the use of salt in munitions.  Can anyone help?