Author Archives: JoanneinTownsville

Marrinup: May 1944

Marrinup PW Camp No.16 was in operation from August 1943 to July 1946.  It was built to house 1200 Italian and German prisoners of war.

The footprints of the camp are still visible today in the concrete foundations and barbed wire at the site: POW Camp Marrinup Trail

Marrinup PW Camp was the parent and administrative camp for all prisoners of war in Western Australia.  Italians en route to their farm placement in one of the 27 Prisoner of War Control Centres (PWCC) or work placement in one of 4 Prisoner of War Control Hostels (PWCH) had time at Marrinup.  Identity Cards were issued at Marrinup and all mail was processed through the camp.

Garizzo

Identity Card for Giuseppe Garizzo

(NAA: K1174)

In May 1944, a comprehensive report was written by an independent delegate on behalf of the International Red Cross.  Some of the pertinent points relate to cigarette issue, recreational activites and correspondence.

The layout of the camp was dependant upon the terrain of the site and is very different from the hexagon layout of Hay, Cowra and Murchison PW Camps.  It was also a much smaller camp than those on the east coast of Australia.

Marrinup 2

Marrinup: Plan of PW Camp No. 16

(NAA: K121430/32/4)

Marrinup 1

Aerial View of Marrinup Prisoner of War Camp

(www.wanowandthen.com/Marrinup.html)

Correspondence

As per regulations, Italian prisoners of war have the right to dispatch the following number of letters and cards:

Fighting staff … 2 letters or 2 cards per week, or a letter and a card.

Protected staff … 2 letters and 2 cards per week.

A major concern for the Italian prisoners of war related to not receiving news from their families.  This is causing a great deal of anxiety. [May 1944, the allies were fighting the Germans at Monte Cassino.  Rome was liberated on 4th June 1944]

During the month of April 1944, the men  sent 2715 letters, of which 415 were sent by airmail. Airmail charges were at the expense of the prisoners of war.

However, in the same month, the prisoners of war of this camp, and including all the centres of control in Western Australia, received only 217 letters and 2 packets.

At the time of the visit, military authorities announced that 73 letters from Italy have arrived for prisoners of war in Western Australia.

Prisoners of war have the avenue to enquire through the International Red Cross for information about their families.

Reading Material

The camp did not  have a library but it was noted that prisoners of war had the option of acquiring books of their choice, subject to the approval of the camp commander. They could also receive Australian newspapers and periodicals which are censored but not cut.  Since many prisoners of war did not have adequate English, the main need was for Italian books.

Australian Red Cross, Division of Western Australia had been contacted and assurances were made that efforts to buy Italian books would be made.  Arrangement was made for   the purchase of 50 English-Italian dictionaries.

Movie Theatres and Radio Broadcasts

Movie theaters are allowed. But equipment is not in place.

From time to time, concerts and theatrical sessions are organized for the Australian Garrison and prisoners of war are allowed to attend these evenings.

The camp has a gramophone and a number of discs.

Radio broadcasts were allowed BUT  the apparatus and the installation had to be at the expense of the prisoners of war and the broadcasts are controlled by the commander of the camp. No radio is in place.

Recreations and sports

The camp had a table tennis. A small sports field is located at a distance of about one kilometre from the camp. Another large piece of land is five kilometres from the camp and prisoners of war go there on Sunday.

Other Items of Note

The precautions against air strikes have not been considered necessary in the camp, given the security of the area in which they are located.

Prisoners of war have the right to wear their uniforms and rank insignia. They have the opportunity to celebrate their national and patriotic festivities.

Kitchen and Mess

The refectory is furnished with long tables and benches; it has electric light. The refectory is heated in winter.

Canteen is in a special hut is reserved for the canteen.

The kitchen is in the same barracks as the refectory. It includes a room for meat, provisions and a cooking.

Regulatory rations of Italian prisoners of war included meat, bread, potatoes, onions, legumes, butter, lard, cheese, jam, sugar, milk, tea, coffee, salt, pepper, rice, barley, blue peas and macaronis.

The menu is set by the prisoners of war themselves within the limits set by the regulatory rations.

Noodles and macaroni are made in the camp. A vegetable garden provided a supplement of vegetables.

V-P-HIST-E-00223.JPG

Camp Marrinup September 1943

(ICRC V-P-HIST-E-00223)

Living Arrangements and Ablutions

The dwellings of this camp are composed of raised huts, with doors and shuttered windows.  The dormitories are six men per hut. The bedding includes a wooden bed, a bench and 5 covers. The dormitories are filled with shelves for personal effects. The lighting is in oil. Officers share a hut with one other non-commissioned officer.

The dormitories are swept daily, and once a week a soap cleaning is carried out.

Marrinup 4

Footprints of Marrinup Prisoner of War Camp

(www.wanowandthen.com/ghost-towns14.html)

The shower stall contains a cloakroom, two hot showers, four cold showers and eight cold water faucets for ablutions.

The shack of the toilets contains six covered seats and two urinals. A closed compartment is reserved for non-commissioned officers.

Marrinup-22 Laundry

Footprints of Marrinup Prisoner of War Camp

(www.wanowandthen.com/ghost-towns14.html)

The laundry room consists of a boiler, two sinks and four hot and cold water taps.

Meet some of Marrinup’s Italian Prisoners of War

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Image 030213/04 Marrinup, Australia. 29 July 1944. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned at Marrinup POW Camp. Back row, left to right: 59611 Rocco Ciocia; 48326 Antonio Saponaro; 47616 Tripolino Nunziati; 63279 Angelo Nenciolini; 49260 Francesco Iodice; 47775 Domenico Vallone. Front row: 48556 Renzo Menicucci; 48631 Franco Riva; 48343 Enrico Varone; 48381 Alfredo Bertini. Note: The number is an assigned POW number.

Image 030123/02 Marrinup, Australia. 29 July 1944. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned at Marrinup POW Camp. Back row, left to right: 49724 Narciso Tognarelli; 45340 Carlo Consalvo; 59646 Nicola Di Sciullo; 59250 Giovanni Risi; 47908 Ugo Bottone. Front row: 59139 Dante Maranca; 59227 Vitaliano Parentela; 59109 Giuseppe Luongo; 59985 Giovanni Sera; 59110 Gaetano Lanzetta. Note: The number is an assigned POW number.

Image 030123/03 Marrinup, Australia. 29 July 1944. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned at Marrinup POW Camp. Back row, left to right: 58185 Francesco Maellaro; 48123 Francesco Gallone; 59224 Vincenzo Palma; 47640 Agostino Perna; 59614 Cosimo Collecola; 59822 Michele Parisi. Front row: 59820 Gabriele Licenziato; 60045 Giuseppe Vitucci; 48599 Giocondo Orciani; 59997 Lorenzo Scaccaborozzi. Note: The number is an assigned POW number.

Image 030123/07 Marrinup, Australia. 29 July 1944. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned at Marrinup POW Camp. Back row, left to right: 46213 Vincenzo Muto; 59989 Fioravante Speranza; 59871 Antonio Massimo; 49202 Giuseppe Scanella; 59870 Francesco Mascia. Middle row: 59279 Cammillo Spada; 59309 Giovanni Salvi; 59102 Rosindo Ingolingo; 59884 Raimondo Nicolai; 59674 Nicola Di Sciorio. Front row: 59064 Michele Conte; 56964 Nicola Settani; 48682 Angelo Terlizzi; 59645 Beradino D’Alessio; 62003 Pasquale Criscuolo. Note: The number is an assigned POW number.

Image 030123/05 Marrinup, Australia. 29 July 1944. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned at Marrinup POW Camp. Back row, left to right: Unidentified (only half shown); 47640 Agostino Perna; 47916 Domenico Cammarano; 48748 Domenico Chiono; 59046 Giuseppe Andretta; 47908 Ugo Bottone. Front row: 47501 Giuseppe Giuffrida; 59458 Filippo Ciconte; 59301 Luigi Savini; 48999 Emanuele Piro.

The above information is compiled from a report written by the delegate for the International Red Cross who visited Marrinup 18 to 21 May 1944.

Sticking Together

Cousins Nicola Del Vecchio and Pasquale Falcone from Roseto Valfortore were so well regarded by farmer Henry Stey of Harveys Siding via Gympie, that he assisted them to return to Australia in 1951. While the military records provide invaluable information about Nicola and Pasquale, the personal stories about these men, can only be told by the farming family.  Thanks to Faye Kennedy (Stey) the story of Pat and Mick emerge.

There were 40,000 Italians taken prisoner of war at the Battle of Bardia, but somehow, somewhere in the deserts of North Africa, Nicola and Pasquale found each other.  Nicola was with the Infantry and Pasquale with the Artillery and were both taken prisoner of war on the first day of this battle, 3rd January 1941.

By the time they arrived in Geneifa Egypt for processing, there were together.  Their Middle East Numbers (M.E. No.)  indicate that they were close in line: Nicola M.E. 69698 and Pasquale M.E. 69701.  From Egypt they spent time in POW camps in India and arrived in Australia onboard the Mariposa into Sydney 1st November 1943. They are photographed together in Cowra 6th February 1944 six weeks before they were sent to Gaythorne in Queensland for farm placement.

Del Vecchio Falcone.JPG

Cowra, NSW. 6 February 1944. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned at No. 12 POW Group. Shown here are: 56135 Nicola Del Vecchio; 56192 Pasquale Falcone; 56427 Michele Verrelli; 56428 Virginio Verrelli; 56424 Giacomo Veloci; 56026 Vincenzo Austero; 56226 Giovanni Italia; 56279 Amedeo Morrone; 56464 Riccardo Zingaro; 56483 Antonio Knapich; 55066 Giovanni Bianofiore; 55848 Michele Placentino. Note: The number is an assigned POW number.

(AWM Image 030175/05, Photographer McInnes, Geoffrey)

Together they were sent to Q3 Gympie and placed on the farm of JH Sargeant at Wilsons Pocket on 6th April 1944. Together they were transferred to the farm of HJ Stey at Harveys Siding on 4th May 1944.  Henry Stey’s granddaughter Faye Kenney relates the memories of her family: “Nicola and Paquale befriended Henry and became close to his family.  At the time, Henry’s wife became pregnant and the honour of naming the baby girl was given to these two men.  My aunty was named Ventris in 1946. Henry’s family called the men Pat and Mick.  There is the story of an incident at the farm, involving another POW worker who was going to attack Henry with a machete.  But another worker close by, stepped in and held the worker until the police or military staff came out from Gympie and took him away.  Apparently, Henry started proceedings with the Immigration Department to get them back to Australia.  Henry’s application was successful as they both arrived in Sydney from Naples onboard the Assimina in February 1951.  The destination on the ship’s register is noted as Harveys Siding via Gympie.  My family told me that when they’d returned to Harveys Siding, sadly Henry was deceased.  He had died in November 1962.  Maybe they had not come straight to Queensland.  I found a listing for Pasquale at Leichardt Sydney and one for Nicola in Ascot and Albion in Brisbane.”

While the only photo the Stey family have of Pat and Mick is a little blurry, it clearly tells a story.  Together Pat and Mick lived on Henry Stey’s farm at Harveys Siding.  They worked side by side with the farmer.  They enjoyed the company of children and being part of a family.  They earned the respect of Henry and were given the honour of naming the Stey’s daughter.  And together with the assistance of Henry, they returned to Australia.

Stey.Gympie.Cousins

Pat and Mick and a Stey son c 1944-45

(from the collection of Faye Kennedy [nee Stey])

Stepping back in time

It was almost 73 years to the day, when Nino Cippola stepped back in time to retrace his father’s journey in Queensland. Nino’s father, Francesco (Ciccio) Cippola was an Italian prisoner of war captured in Libya on 4th January 1941.  While in Melbourne on holiday from Taormina in Sicily,  Nino thought he would try to find details about the “Q6 Home Hill” written into his father’s POW Service and Casualty Form.

Cipolla Francesco Cipolla Photograph April 1939

Francesco Cippola: Roma 10.4.1939

(photographic collection of Nino Cippola)

A flurry of messagess via Messenger and emails, a flight to Townsville and Nino found himself on the railway platform of Home Hill. Francesco Cippola would have stepped onto the same platform. Not much changes in small country towns in Queensland.

Home Hill Railway Station: 1944 and 2017

Nino Cippola tracing his father’s footsteps

(NAA: M1415, 434, photographic collection of Joanne Tapiolas)

With only 1 three ton truck available the 115 Italian prisoners of war would have walked a short distance to the Home Hill Showgrounds.  Many of the buildings there had been leased by the Army and it would have taken more than one trip to transport the Italians over a muddy dirt track 22 miles up river Home Hill.

It was the 30th April 1944 and the Q6 PWC Hostel, to accommodate 255 Italian POWs and A.M.F. staff, had not been completed.  Wet weather, a tropical cyclone and delays with the septic tank, meant that the Italians ‘roughed it’ in temporary tents, without floor boards. The POWs were there to grow vegetables to supply to the Allied forces in North Queensland.

Little remains of the hostel buildings and the farming sheds. The concrete foundations were dug up years ago and the buildings sold off to Main Roads.  What does remain are the traces of ‘settlement’ found on the banks of the Burdekin: a lone banana tree, a cluster of custard apple and lemon trees. Using a hand drawn plan of the hostel complex, Nino could envisage the extent of what was Ciccio’s  home for 15 months.

 

1944.camp layout

Layout Plan POW Camp Homehill

(NAA: J153, T1542B, 1944)

As he stood  at the Q6 Hostel site, Nino could also make sense of the many stories his father had told him. He could also make sense of Francesco’s (Ciccio’s) obsession with growing vegetables.  Ciccio was not a farmer. He did not come from a farming background. Ciccio was a ‘carabinieri’. But time spent on the Home Hill farms had made an impression on Ciccio. His family said, he was fanatical about seeds and tomatoes. Nino explains that:

“my father’s interest in growing crops was substantial and almost at an industrial scale – he would return home from the farm with 150 kg of tomatoes in the back of the car, or grow wheat and have it ground for flour, bags and bags of it, he would have 100s of kilos of eggplants, capsicums or pumpkins. He was always asking his family about which fruit or vegetables tasted best and he would dry and save seeds of the best tasting.  He often had seeds in his pockets. He would give away his excessive volumes of fruit and vegetables to neighbours, family and friends. I never fully understood my father’s passion in this area until I visited the POW site on the Burdekin River and learnt about the work my father and other POW were doing.  My father did not come from a farming background.  Most people have a small vegetable plot, but my father grew crops on a grand scale.  I believe his time on the Commonwealth Farm at Q6, gave him this lifelong interest”.

The backdrop to this story is the purpose and operations of the Commonwealth Vegetable Project Farms: to grow vegetables for service requirements, to develop means and ways to select and grow crops suited to good yields and the tropical climate, to run seed trials and soil testing to improve productivity. Regarding tomatoes,  barrels on the Commonwealth farms were filled with tomatoes, to decompose and then be treated to extract the seeds and so began a lifelong passion of Ciccio’s centring around tomato growing and seed selection.

Ciccio’s dislike for bananas also seems to have stemmed from his time at Q6.  His children heard the recurring comment ‘I don’t eat bananas’ from their father.  If bananas were in the fruit bowl, he would reiterate his disdain for bananas.  The Home Hill Italian POWs were responsible for the cultivation of nine acres of bananas and used ground safes to ripen the hands.  Likely, the best bananas went to the armed forces and the overripe bananas, in abundance, became part of the POW daily menu.

The landscape of the Burdekin is in contrast to that of Taormina.  A mountain range rises high in the background at the end of Kirknie Road as opposed to an active Mount Etna viewed through the archways of the Ancient Greek Amphitheatre.

Contrasting Landscapes of Taormina Sicily and up river Home Hill Queensland

(Trip Advisor: Taormina, photographic collection of Joanne Tapiolas)

Up river Home Hill is a long way from Taormina and the contrasts are striking. But Nino’s step back in time, to the time his father Ciccio grew vegetables on a Commonwealth Vegetable Farm up river Home Hill, offered up an understanding of his father’s years as a prisoner of war in Australia.

Sebastiano from Ortona a Mare Chieti

With a handful of photos, Paolo Zulli is looking for information regarding his uncle, Sebastiano Di Campli, prisoner of war in Australia. Sebastiano was sent to work on farm/farms in the N13 Moss Vale district in New South Wales from 10.4.44 to 30.3.45. The government records indicate that some 110 Italian prisoners of war worked on farms in this area from March 1944 to November 1945.

Italian prisoners of war assigned to farm work, were issued with a ‘Bag, kit universal’ which was supposed to be withdrawn when rural workers returned to camp.  Not so for Sebastiano whose bag is still coloured with the red used to dye clothing and other items issued to prisoners of war and internees. Sebastiano’s kit bag still bears his Australian prisoner of war number: 57181.

Di Campli (2)

Kit Bag: Sebastiano Di Campli

(photo courtesy of Paolo Zilli)

Sebastiano’s photos tell more of his journey as a soldier and prisoner of war. Sebastiano was serving with the 44 Regiment Artiglieri Division Marmarica when he was captured on 3rd January 1941. A group photo taken in Libya was one of the treasured mementoes which returned to Italy with him.

Di Campli (1)

Libya: Sebastiano Di Campli and friends

(photo courtesy of Paolo Zilli)

From their capture at Bardia, Sebastiano and a friend Nicola Costantino (also from Ortona a Mare), were together when they were processed at Geneifa Egypt. How is this known: Sebastiano’s M/E prisoner of war number is 71770 while Nicola’s M/E number is 71768. Special bonds of friendship are confirmed by a family story that Nicola saved Sebastiano’s life in Libya.

From Egypt they were both sent to camps in India. On the reverse of Nicola’s photo is inscribed: 26.4.1942 Ricordo di Costantino Nicola. In 1943, they arrived in Australia, within two months of each other, then Nicola was sent to South Australia while Sebastiano stayed in New South Wales.

India: Sebastiano Di Campli and Nicola Costantino

(photo courtesy of Paolo Zilli)

Two months before being sent to Moss Vale and farm work, Sebastiano Di Campli was captured by the lens of Geoffrey McInnes at Cowra POW Camp on 6th February 1944.  He is standing third from the right and was immediately recognised by his nephew Paolo.

AWM 3899063

 Cowra, NSW. 6 February 1944. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned at No. 12 POW Group. Back row, left to right: 57040 G. Angelozzi; 57413 G. Palladinetti; 57422 D. Pasquini; 57168 D. Del Romano; 57181 S. Di Campli; 57277 R. Iacobucci; 57448 V. Pizzica. Front row: 57235 L. Fresco; 57195 M. Di Prato; 57224 G. Flacco; 57420 A. Paolucci; 49872 P. Morelli. Note: The number is an assigned POW number.

(AWM Image 030173/16, Photographer: McInnes, Geoffrey)

Glimpses of information about N13 Prisoner of War Control Centre Moss Vale can be found in the newspapers of the day. An article in the Picton Post on 11 May 1944 mentioned, “Sixty four prisoners of war employed on farms in Moss Vale district are said to be rendering excellent service.” Another article mentions Mr C McInnes owner of New South Wale’s largest piggery- “The Yedman”, which had 1400 pigs. The piggery was run by Mr McInnes, one employee and two prisoners of war and there was concern as to how to staff his piggery with the Italians being recalled in November 1945.

A reporter for the Sun newspaper visited five Italian prisoners of war at a farmhouse in the Moss Vale district. This is their story: N13 Moss Vale Antonio, Mario, Giuseppe, Pietro and Domenico

Another article mentions the strong affinity between a Moss Vale farmer and his family and ‘the men in their prisoner garb’, as well as the ongoing communication between farmer and an Italian post-war: An Italian Ex-P.O.W. Who Died from Grief

Along with his photos and kit bag, Sebastiano returned to Italy with a holy card for Maria S.S. della Libera. The picture of Holy Mary was kept with him while in Libya, Egypt, India and Australia, a source of comfort and a tangible and personal link to his home in Ortona a Mare Chieti.

Di Campli (4)

Holy Card belonging to Sebastiano Di Campli

(photo courtesy of Paolo Zilli)

Paolo knows that his wish to find Sebastiano’s farming families in and around Moss Vale is unlikely to happen, but he would at least like to know a little more about this district and primary industries in those times.

 

Q6 PWCH Home Hill

I am yet to find a photograph taken at the Home Hill hostel.  Military zones, such as this prisoner of war camp, were governed by strict rules and protocols regarding the taking of photos.  According to the regulations, “Group photos of PW allocated through Control Centres for employment in rural industry were NOT permitted” (NAA:A7711)  and while POWs allocated through PWCC had their photos taken by their host families, there is no photographic record of the POWs while working on the Commonwealth Farms, nor of the hostel.  Or maybe there are photos of the POWs at Home Hill hostel that are yet to see the light of day.

The Australian War Memorial holds an amazing array of photographs taken of a number of POW Camp facilities in Australia and group photos of the prisoners of war.  The group photos were taken so that the Italian POWs could purchase a copy to send home.

With so little information known about the Home Hill hostel, I searched the Australian War Memorial (AWM) records to catch a glimpse of my Home Hill POWs.  I had the list of names: 272 but I was not satisfied with names only.

I did not want this group of men to be defined by the few trouble makers who refused to work or escaped and were recaptured.  After all, they were men who were fathers, brothers, husbands and sons.  By the time they walked into the hostel, it had been seven months since Italy had surrendered.  The Allies were making their way north through Italy, but by 28th April 1944 there was a lull in Allied activity due to bad weather:

LONDON. Thursday. – Land
and air fighting has slackened in
Italy because rain and mist are
again shrouding the front lines,
says Reuters correspondent at
Allied Headquarters.
There was harassing artillery
and mortar fire on the Cassino
front and in the nearby Garigliano
River sector.
(News (Adelaide, SA : 1923 – 1954) Friday 28 April 1944 p 1)

Home Hill. The Men

The first group of 115 Italian POWs arrived on 30th April 1944.

These men came from all walks of life. The requirements of the hostel meant that the following occupations were minimum requested and recruited: 1 x Medical Officer, 4 x orderlies, 190 x workers, 10 x cooks and fatigues, 50 x PW capable of driving tractors including mechanics.

Some of their occupations included: police, hairdresser, sculptor, brewer, bookseller, sailor, electrician, tinsmith, tiler, brick layer, linotypist, cyclist, tailor, miller, mason and blacksmith.  Considering that the hostel had not been completed when the first 115 POWs walked into the hostel,  men with trades would have been most welcome.

The photo below taken at Cowra shows three of the Home Hill POWs: Giuseppe Ippolito  – labourer, Salvatore De Micco – farmer and Agostino Leto –  postal clerk.  All three men were in the first group of 115 to be sent to Q6 Home Hill Hostel.

Ippolito De micco Leto

Cowra, NSW. 6 February 1944. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned at No. 12 POW Group. Back row, left to right: 49115 C. Trentino; 49354 G. Ippolito; 49592 A. Poggi; 49107 G. Zunino; 48833 R. Bartoli; 49212 R. Papini; 48863 S. De Micco. Front row: 48939 A. Leto; 49172 A. Mandrini; 57531 B. Protano; 49923 F. Carlone; 45196 A. Ciofani. Note: The number is an assigned POW number.

(AWM Image 030173/11 McInnes, G)

Walking in his footsteps…Yanco

Yanco, NSW. 1944-01-31. Twenty two of the original thirty Italian prisoners of war (POWs) who arrived at No. 15 POW Camp on 19 March 1942.

(Australian War Memorial: Geoffrey McInness Image 063919)

I hadn’t meant to delve into places outside of Queensland, because nine PWCC, one PWC Hostel and one PW&I Camp is more than I can handle. But here I am, delving into the history of Yanco Camp 15.

Many Queensland Italian POWs had worked at Yanco, so this is justification enough.  A little more research and I realised the similarities between the work being done at Yanco and the work being undertaken at Q6 PWC Hostel Home Hill. Another Queensland connection.

But in truth, my motivation is much less complicated: a gentleman from Rome, Alessdandro Di Sabatino contacted me.  He is visiting Australia in 2018 and he would like to walk in the footsteps of his father, Antonio Di Sabatino.  And so my quest to understand the operations of Yanco began.

Di Sabatino, Antonio first left standing

Yanco, Australia. 23 January 1944. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned at No. 15 POW Group. Back row, left to right: 45593 Antonio De Sabatino;49625 Oreste Piermattei; 49876 Goffredo Mangiasciutto; 46515 Andrea Pesaola; 45240 Cesare Nobilia; 48641 Luigi Salvati; 45417 Paolo Di Massimo. Front row: 49902 Giuseppe Ricci; 45732 Armando Guaazi; 46354 Mario Palma; 49489 Antonio Galea; 45730 Nicola Clemenzi. Note: The number is an assigned POW number.

(Australian War Memorial: Geoffrey McInnes Image 030171/01)

I have combined photos from Australian War Memorial and interspersed them through the following newspaper article, accessible from Trove.com to assist other children and grandchildren of Italian POWs to walk in their father or grandfather’s footsteps.

Yanco Camp 15 is now the Yanco Agricultural Institute (YAI).  The site has been repurposed many times during its history and the YAI celebrated its 100 anniversary in 2008. Staff of the YAI welcome visits from families of the Italian POWs and are more than happy to provide you with an historical perspective of the property.

Yanco 063917.JPG

Yanco, NSW. 1944-01-31. Italian prisoners of war (POWs) at No. 15 POW Camp enjoying a shower after a hard day’s work on the farm. This shower block can accommodate twenty four men at a time, and was originally a Riverina Welfare Farm building.

(Australian War Memorial: Geoffrey McInnes Image 063917)

Yanco Prisoner of War Camp (NSW) was a compound housing 700 – 800  prisoners of war who worked producing vegetables for supply to the allied forces. The site is in the Riverina district WNW of Canberra, between Wagga Wagga and Hay.  It is 290 km from Cowra Prisoner of War and Internment Camp and 170 km from Hay Prisoner of War and Internment Camp.

Yanco 063594

YANCO, NSW. 1944-01-22. VIEW FROM THE WATER TOWER SHOWING THE MESS BUILDING AND THE ITALIAN PRISONER OF WAR (POW) TENTS OF NO. 15 POW CAMP. IN THE BACKGROUND CAN BE SEEN SOME 250 ACRES OF BEANS AND TOMATOES.

(Australian War Memorial: Geoffrey McInnes Image 063594)

Yanco operated differently to the other POW camps and this included the baking of bread. A request was lodged for the procurement of 100 bread tins: “that probable reason for demand for 100 Tins, bread for No. 15 P.W. Camp Yanco is that P.W. there make their own bread which procedure is not followed in other P.W. Camps. P.W. held at this camp total 550 and in view of foregoing, supply is recommended.” (AWM War Diary 18 Oct 43)

Yanco Bread 3896867

Yanco, NSW. 1944-01-31. Italian prisoner of war (POWs) bakers at No. 15 POW of War Camp removing bread from the oven. In the foreground can be seen tins of dough ready to be baked. (AWM Photo 063916 Geoffrey McInnes)

The article below from Farmer and Settler (Sydney, NSW: 1906 – 1955), Friday 14 April 1944, page 6 explains the operations and importance of the work done by Italian prisoners of war at Yanco.

Riverina Farm Now Biggest Vegetable Garden Project in Australia

Swarthy Italians have replaced students, soldiers have taken over from teachers, and fields where games were played are now flourishing vegetable gardens at Riverina Welfare Farm, Yanco.

Yanco 063822.JPG

Yanco, NSW. 1944-01-29. An Italian prisoner of war (POW) from No. 15 POW Camp operating a horse drawn insecticide duster on a crop of tomatoes on one of the unit’s farms.

Australian War Memorial: Geoffrey McInnes Image 063822

In two years the farm has become Australia’s greatest vegetable growing project- the biggest producer on the food front.

New methods of growing and harvesting have been introduced as well as new methods of seed production.  At present more than 300 acres have been devoted to vegetables for seed purposes only.

The farm was taken over from the Education Department in March, 1942, by the Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the Department of Commerce to step up vegetable growing.

In the first year, using only prisoners of war labour more than 500 tons of tomatoes, silver beet, sweet corn, beans, cabbages, cauliflowers and sweet peppers (an American delicacy) were delivered to Leeton cannery.  The area under vegetables was 320 acres.

Yanco 063793.JPG

Yanco, NSW. 1944-01-29. Italian prisoners of war (POWs) from No. 15 POW Camp grading and packing tomatoes at the packing shed before sending them to the Leeton Co-operative Cannery for processing.

(Australian War Memorial: Geoffrey McInnes Image 063793)

With the importation of lend-lease machinery, several units were sent to the farm to speed up production and last October the area given to vegetables was increased to 640 acres.

Shortage of vegetable seed and the difficulty of importing it caused a change of plans.  Instead of bulk vegetable production, the farm set out to grow seed.

Two areas of 320 acres and 150 acres were laid out under spray irrigation, the remainder being furrow irrigation.  With the spray equipment, about 40 acres are given water at the rate of one inch of rain a day.

Largest crops sown are beans, 160 acres; tomatoes 75 acres; silver beet 37 acres, carrots 30 acres and sweet corn 25 acres.  The carrots will be transplanted in the winter to 100 acres for seed production.

Yanco 063820.JPG

Yanco, NSW. 1944-01-29. Italian prisoners of war (POW) from No. 15 POW Camp using a Farmall tractor and a furrowing out machine to prepare a paddock for silver beet irrigation.

(Australian War Memorial: Geoffrey McInnes Image 063820)

Next month 38 acres will be sown to onion and in June, 150 acres of peas will be sown.  Some peas will be sent to the cannery and the remainder retained for seed.

Beside the vegetable project, the farm which is 2045 acres in extent has 225 acres under pasture, paspalum and clover, 40 acres under Lucerne, 50 acres under orchard and 30 acres under sorghum to make 200 tons of silage.

In addition, it has a stud Jersey herd of 115 head of cattle, a Berkshire pig stud of 130 as well as 300 sheep and 60 horses.  All products go to the Services.

Yanco 063884

Yanco, NSW. 1944-01-31. Italian prisoners of war (POWs) tending stud Berkshire pigs on the farm at No. 15 POW Camp.

Australia War Memorial: Geoffrey McInnes Image 063884)

The Farm Manager (Mr John L Green) yesterday described the new method of harvesting and preparing tomato seed.

Varieties being grown include 16 acres of Bonnie Best, 15 Marglobe, 12 Break of Day, 14 Pearson, 9 Earliana, 8 Tatura Dwarf Globe and one of Bonnie Marr, a new type.

Picked into kerosene tins, they are emptied into lug boxes in the field and these are carted on drays to the grading shed erected in the field adjacent to the crop.  An average day’s picking is 500 to 600 lug boxes, weighing 10 to 12 tons.

The tomatoes are then place on sorting tables 30 ft long, 3 ft wide and made of rubber and this revolves.

Those retained for seed extraction pass through an electrically driver pulper and juice extractor, and the pulp thus obtained, together with that returned from the cannery is placed in barrels and treated with hydrochloric acid for the purpose of making seed extraction more rapid and easy.

Yanco 063885

Yanco, NSW. 1944-01-31. Italian prisoners of war (POWs) from No. 15 POW Camp pulping tomatoes in order to recover the seed. The crushed tomato is then treated with weak hydrochloric acid to free the seed from the pulp. Seeds are then washed and dried.

(Australian War Memorial: Geoffrey McInnes Image 063885)

The system was developed by Mr EM Hutton, of the C.S. and I.R. AT Canberra two years ago and makes it possible to pre-treat pulp in 30 minutes compared with two days required under the old system of natural fermentation.

The pulp is poured on to a 600 ft wooden flume with a slight gradual decline.  The flume is 15 inch wide and 12 inch deep and every 5 ft is a baffle board 6 inch high.

Water is run in at a rate sufficient to give a flow of ½ to 1 inch over the baffles.

The result is the seed, being heavier than the pulp, sinks and is caught in the baffles, while the pulp flows over and is eventually lost at the lower end in an open drain.

Two barrels of pulp, representing 100 bushells of tomatoes can be washed in this manner in 50 minutes. The washing, however, does not remove every small particle of pulp, it being necessary to take this in a screen of meshes.

After this treatment, the seed is placed for 24 hours in a solution of ascetic acid with the object of controlling bacterial canker disease.

It is then spread on tarpaulins on a drying green for six to 10 hours, collected and bagged.

Mr Green said that already 1500 lb of seed has been produced and it was expected that 3000 lb more seed would be harvested before the end of May.  The amount of tomatoes involved would be 400 tons.

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Yanco, NSW. 1944-02-01. Italian prisoners of war (POWs) from No. 15 POW Camp picking Tatura Dwarf Globe tomatoes which they have grown for seed on the unit’s vegetable farm.

(Australian War Memorial: Geoffrey McInnes Image 063934)

There, In Black and White

Jynette Brumpton of Banana Queensland was going through some paperwork of her parents and found old black and white negatives.  To her delight and amazement, two photos were of the Italian prisoners of war that had worked on her parents’ dairy farm at Ponde near Murray Bridge in South Australia.

Jynette’s mother Grace remembered that one fellow’s name was Paolo Bernardi but that Grace and her husband Ernest had difficulty pronouncing his name so asked if they could call him Bernard, which they did.  Also remembered is Giuseppe.  The Sneaths were going to sponsor Giuseppe to return to Australia but economic circumstances prevented this.  The third man was Giuseppe’s brother-in-law.

Sneath Murray Bridge

Giuseppe Pagano, Domenico La Torre and Paolo Bernardi at Sneath Farm Ponde SA 1944/45

(photo courtesy of Jynette Brumpton)

And so began Jynette’s journey to discover the stories of her parents’ POWs.  A NAA request gave the name of the third man: Domenico La Torre. “My mum at 96 is a bit sketchy about things that long ago but still remembers some things clearly.  A clear memory is that Giuseppe always wore a tie. Mum says that when they received a letter from Giuseppe asking for sponsorship dad went to see the relevant authorities in Adelaide to see what was involved.  After much soul searching and shuffling the money around dad felt that he just wasn’t in a secure enough position financially to sponsor someone,” explains Jynette.

All three were captured at Bardia on 4th January 1941.  From Nocelleto (Napoli), brothers-in-law Giuseppe Pagano and Domenico La Torre stuck together as when they were processed at Geneifa in Egypt the Middle East Numbers issued were 70004 and 70006.  With 40,000 Italians surrendered/captured at Bardia, staying together was no easy task.  Paolo Bernardi came from Terracina Littoria.

An additional document which sheds light on farming life in 1944 is the farm ledger kept by Ernest Archibald Sneath.  This ledger offers a window in past farming practices.  It tells of the small crops grown through the seeds purchased, the income from milk production, the cost of screws, nails, steel wool, oil, petrol and diesel.  Before Jynette found the negatives and began her search about her family’s Italian POWs, the meaning of the notation PWCC would have eluded her.  Now Jynette knows that the 9 was paid to the prisoner of war control centre (PWCC) at Murray Bridge: S4 PWCC Murray Bridge.  The labour cost was £1/week per Italian indicating that the canteen truck would have visited the farm on a three-week cycle.

Sneath Murray Bridge Farm Ledger

Farm Ledger for Ernest Sneath’s Farm at Ponde SA

(courtesy of Jynette Brumpton)

Jynette noticed that only £7 was paid in one cycle, but when cross-referenced with the Service and Casualty Forms, Domenico La Torre had left the farm to go to hospital between 17-11-44 and 30-11-44.  Jynette comments, “This history is like one big giant puzzle.  The photos are part of the puzzle, as are dad’s ledgers and the Italian Service Forms.”

Another piece of the puzzle emerges about a fruit and vegetable shop in Mannum. Jynette explains, “My parents ran a fruit and veg shop during part of the war years. I knew that and can remember going into it when I was small. It was in Mannum the local shopping centre. My maternal grandmother ran it for dad. But what I didn’t know until recently when mum and I were having one of our POW chats is that she said it was Giuseppe who made the suggestion to dad in the first place.  My father was a great veg gardener and Giuseppe noticing that, asked dad why he didn’t sell to the people in Mannum. So after some discussion that’s what they decided to do. The POWs would grow the vegetables, dad would go weekly to Murray Bridge to procure fruit and Nan would run the shop. My Nan kept the books and the shop paid £3/week for the POW wages [reimbursement to dad].  I should imagine that once the Italians left dad wouldn’t have been able to keep growing veg as well as maintain the irrigation and dairy etc. The list of veg is interesting as some of those varieties like Greenfeast peas are still being grown so it’s nice to think that some things stay the same,” explains Jynette.

Sneath Veg Shop Mannum

Mannum Shop Notebook

(courtesy of Jynette Brumpton)

Another important find for Jynette are other farm records kept by her family, revealing a little more of Australia’s agricultural history.  The pages reveal what was planted and when the crops should be ready to harvest as well as the different varieties of vegetables grown seven decades ago.  Today, most people would not know the difference between a triamble and gramma pumpkin or Chatenay or Manchester Table carrots.

Sneath family

The Sneath Family May 1947.  Back: Dad’s mother Ina, Grace, Ernest with Carol Front:  Jynette, cat Sadie, Dennis with George Fletcher dad’s stepfather.

(photo courtesy of Jynette Brumpton)

This is more than just the story of three prisoners of war on a South Australian farm.  These three Italians were part of a group of 13,500 Italian prisoners of war working on Australian farms from 1943-1946. This is also the story of farm diversity during war time; the hospitality of Australian farmers; the Italians who are remembered seven decades later and whose footsteps are found in black and white photos, on the pages of farm ledgers and in the memories of Australians. Jynette Brumpton’s black and white negatives have added ‘colour’ to this history.

PS Grace Sneath also remembered that there was another Italian POW who didn’t stay long.  After further research, a document reveals Silvio Pellacani was transferred from EA Sneath at Ponde to EB Brand at Ponde on 3rd May 1944.  He was sent to S4 PWCC Murray Bridge on 18th March 1944.  He was likely to have been replaced with Paolo Bernardi who arrived at S4 PWCC 2nd May 1944.