Category Archives: Italian Prisoners of War India

In their spare time…

What isn’t written into the records is how the Italian prisoners of war kept themselves occupied during their many hours of idleness.  It just wasn’t the hours spent on board the transport ships to India and Australia that needed filling, but also the Sundays on farms and the days and nights in Cowra, Hay and Murchison.

Snippets of information from newspapers, oral histories and letters, when combined with images from photos deliver an insight into the pastimes of our Italian POWs.

CARDS and BOARD GAMES My nonno taught me how to play card games.  I have always thought that this is how he wiled away his spare hours during the ‘slack’ in the cane cutting communities of north Queensland during the 1920s and 1930s.  Briscola and scopa are two Italian card games which no doubt the Italian POWs played while in Australia.  A newspaper photographer captured two Italians playing cards onboard the train taking them to Hay.  A pack of cards is portable and cheap.

Mention is made in a newspaper article of an ‘improvised draughts board’ carried by an Italian POW when he landed in Sydney. The draught pieces had been cut from broom handles. Official photos taken at Hay and Cowra, had Italian POWs playing chess and making chess sets (from lathes constructed by the POWs).

Italian POWs Playing Cards

(The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW: 1842-1954) Thursday 16th October 1941, page 10)

EDUCATION and LANGUAGE CLASSES Costanzo Melino wrote that whilst in India, he attended Italian and English classes.  Having minimal formal education in Italy, he seized opportunities to undertake classes in Italian and English. It was considered imperative that POWs occupied their leisure time usefully and the policy was to provide opportunities for POWs to further their studies.  Libraries in the camps were established and canteen profits used to purchase additional text books relevant to courses undertaken. Books from overseas were allowed in the areas of banking and financial, medical, scientific, art, economics, music, agriculture, religion, trade and commerce as well as periodicals of a general literary nature.

METAL WORK CLASSES Rosemary Watt (Bury) is caretaker of a carved artefact made in Cowra by Angelo Capone.  Most like mass produced in a mould, the Italians then finished the carving with adornments of their choosing.  Interestingly, the Australia War Memorial has a similar arefact in their collection and one is left to ponder “how many other carved arefacts are their in homes in Australia and Italy?”

LEATHER WORK  Australian children recall the shoes and sandals made by their Italian POWs.  The leather would be produced from hides and crafted into practical items such as coin pouches, belts and footwear.  In POW group photos taken at Cowra, Hay and Murchison, many Italians can be seen wearing sandals, which were certainly not standard issue.

EMBROIDERY The origins of the elegant sewing prowess of Italian POWs is hard to locate.  Personal memories are that the Italian POWs had learnt the skill in India and embroideries completed by Italian POWs in India can be found from time to time on EBay. Two beautifully embroidered works are keepsakes of Colleen Lindley (a gift from Domenico Petruzzi to her mother Ruby Robinson of Gayndah) and Ian Harsant (a gift from Francesco Pintabona to the Harsant family of Boonah). An interesting interpretation of the word ’embroidery’ is offered by Alan Fitzgerald in his book ‘The Italian Farming Soldiers’. Used in letters written by Italian POWs,  the word ’embroidery’ was code  for ‘fascist propaganda’.

ART and MUSIC and PLAYS Musical performances and stage plays were performed in the camps.  The wigs of theatre as illustrated below were captured on film at Cowra.
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Cowra 12D 2 7.43 Wigs of Theatre V-P-HIST-01882-02

(International Committee for the Red Cross)

Instruments and art supplies were provided to Italian prisoners of war. The photo below shows a wall of the barracks at Hay which had been decorated as well as the musical instruments acquired for use by the Italians.  Furthermore, Queenslanders remember the mandolins, guitars and banjos that were played on the farms and Nino Cipolla has the music for songs his father Francesco notated while in Q6 Home Hill and Cowra PW & I Camp.

Hay.Art.Music

HAY, AUSTRALIA, 1943-09-09. GROUP OF ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR INTERNED AT NO.6. P.O.W. GROUP, WHO HAVE FORMED THEMSELVES INTO THE CAMP ORHESTRA.

(Australian War Memorial Image 030142/02)

Cowra Council have an interpretive display on a number of themes at various points around the precinct.  The Italians is once such display and under the title Members of the Family, the following is recorded: “Their great love of music, food and art endeared them to the community.  They formed bands and produced musical events which would attract local people to sit outside the camp and listen to their beautiful singing”.

FOOTBALL, TENNIS and BOXING

It is not surprising that just as football is a passion for Italians today, it was also a passion back in the 1940’s.  Group photos of Italian prisoners of war were taken in 1944, among them photos of the Football Teams.

Murchison.Football Team

MURCHISON, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA. 1944-05-20. SOCCER TEAM OF ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR OF NO. 13A COMPOUND, MURCHISON PRISONER OF WAR GROUP.

(Australian War Memorial: Image 066766)

Hay.Football

Yanco, NSW. 1944-01-31. Soccer teams from No. 15 Prisoner of War (POW) Camp lined up on the ground before commencement of play. All Italians, some have recently transferred from Hay. The match was played in temperatures over 109 degrees F.

(Australian War Memorial: Image 063921 Geoffrey McInnes)

Official photos in the Australian War Memorial collection also show the Italians playing tennis at Hay and boxing competitions at Cowra.

GARDENS and STATUES and FOUNTAINS  One would be hard put to find a piazza in Italy that doesn’t have a statue or fountain. Group photos taken at Cowra have the Italians seated in front of this prominent fountain.

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Guerre 1939-1945 Nouvelle – Galls du Sud. Camp du Cowra Fontaine.

(International Red Cross V-P-HIST-01881-01)

Reflecting their history and culture, the Italians keenly constructed statues like the replica Colosseum  at Hay and just to the right of the photo is a tank atop a plinth. Italian POWs grew their own vegetables as is evident by the photo below. Between the barracks at Hay, gardens were dug and crops grown.   Ham Kelly told his grandson that the Italian POWs at Q6 Home Hill Hostel grew the most amazing vegetables outside their barracks.

Hay.Gardens.Statues

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-16. THE CRAFTSMANSHIP OF THE ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR IS ILLUSTRATED BY THIS GARDEN AT THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. NOTE THE MODEL OF THE COLISEUM IN THE FOREGROUND.

(Australian War Memorial Image 063365)

LETTER and JOURNAL WRITING

For the Italian POWs, there were two main regulations regarding the sending of mail:

Prisoners were not to send letters other than through official channels.

Prisoners were allowed to send two letters or two postcards or one letter and one postcard every week on approved Service of Prisoners of War Notelopes and postcards.

Unfortunately, postal services to and from Italy were unreliable. Italians became despondent at not receiving mail from family.  In a letter written by Giuliano Pecchioli, he writes on 12/1/45 that he was in receipt of his sister’s letter dated 3/6/1943.  Communication with family was difficult.  Before Christmas, POWs were given cards with Australian scenes to send home to Italy. Below is a page of a booklet of scenes produced for Christmas 1941.

Card 1941 Xmas

Di sotto la “cartolina” dell’YMCA distribuita per il Natale del 1941

(From the collection of Enrico Dalla Morra)

A number of journals survive, written by Italian soliders and prisoners of war.  For some Italians, it was a way of recording the events of the lives, over which they had little control.  From Tobruk to Clare  is the story of Luigi Bortolotti as recorded in his diary. The “Libbretta” of “Corporal Cofrancesco Umberto” is the basis for “Umberto’s War” . Recorded are details of his journey as a soldier and prisoner of war which took him to Australia.  Another journal “Diario di Guerra” by Francesco D’Urbano was found in  the sands of north Africa by an Australia soldier.  In time, the soldier asked the assistance of CO.AS.IT to trace D’Urbano.  Laura Mecca researched the Italian archives and found that he had spent time in India before returning to Italy.  A copy of the diary was presented to his wife.

CRAFT

While this photo is of Italian POWs in an Egyptian camp, it illustrates the type of craft work POWs engaged in and similar projects would have been undertaken in Australian camps.

NZ Italian Prisoners of War Craft Work

Italian prisoners of war with items of their carved handiwork at Helwan POW Camp, Egypt. One prisoner shown chiselling portrait features of a roundel. Taken 1940-1943 by an official photographer.

John Oxley Library from the collection of New Zealand Department of Internal Affairs Image DA-00736-F

The Big Picture: 1943

A question often raised is: ‘Why were Italian prisoners of war sent to Australia?’

Statistics aid in an understanding of the global situation in May 1943: Italian casualties numbered 400,000. ‘And the figures for the North African campaign were not completed yet.’

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1943 ‘EMPIRE CASUALTIES.’, The Port Macquarie News and Hastings River Advocate (NSW : 1882 – 1950), 22 May, p. 2. , viewed 08 Aug 2019, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article106048757

The question becomes then, ‘What do the Allies do with these Italian prisoners of war?’  accommodation, food, water, sanitation, clothing, interpreters, guards, short term strategies and long term strategies….

In a SECRET War Cabinet Agendum 10th September 1943, titled, Prisoners of War. Responsibility and Accommodation, the situation is presented:

  • By 1st January 1944, America will have accommodation for 250,00 prisoners.  By 1st July 1944, the figure will be increased by 100,000.
  • Approximate nubmers of prisoners held various, particularly Empire:-

United Kingdom 76,700; Canada 23,500; Australia 7,100; New Zealand 800; South Africa 49,000; India 67,000; Middle East 71,000; East Africa  60,000; West Africa  600; Persia/Iraq  1,200; Jamaica  600; Caribbean  600.

Money and Tokens

How many Prisoner of War money and Internment Camp tokens made their way back to Italy?

Upon entry into Australia, all money in the possession of Italian prisoners of war was to be ‘handed over’ to authorities.  Property statements were maintained indicating money on hand.  This statement was a receipt.

There are memories of the Italians having Australian coins with which they made rings for themselves and for their farm families. Black market trading in ‘canteen goods’ for Australian money is also inferred.  However, Italian prisoners of war caught with Australian currency were given 7 days detention for having money in their possession.

Property Statement.jpg

Property Statement for Antonio Arici

(NAA: MP1102/Arici, Antonio)

Many Italian prisoners of war managed to ‘hide’ money.  Alex Miles from Mooloo via Gympie has lost the Italian bank note he was given by one of the Italians.  It showed the she wolf with Romulus and Remus.

Veniero Granatelli has shared his father’s POW money.  His father, Filippo Granatelli managed to keep a bank note used in the Bhopal Prisoner of War Camp India, which is shown below.

Granatelli India

Bhopal Prisoner of War Currency

(photo courtesy of Veniero Granatelli)

Very excitingly, are the coins that Filippo Granatelli kept hidden.  They are Internment Camp tokens.  These tokens were used as payment at the Army Canteen and their production and destruction was strictly controlled. A little of the history of these tokens is included below.

Granatelli Tokens

Internment Camp Tokens Australia

(photo courtesy of Veniero Granatelli)

An indication of how valuable these coins are today is the price for a set of tokens.   Considered a rare and unique collection, a set can be purchased for $7,950. An uncirculated threepence sells for $250.00 and a penny token $299.00.

Tokens

Set of Internment Tokens

(Photo from: http://www.macquariemint.com/wwii-internment-camp-token-set-vf-unc#product.info.description)

The reasons for their introduction are as follows:

a) to prevent bribery of guards

b) to prevent escaping prisoners and internees from having in possession any money which will facilitate their remaining at large

c) to prevent the use of prisoners’ and internees’ money for subversive purposes.

A Department of  the Treasury letter 9th February 1948 summarises the production and post war holdings of these tokens:

5/- 34643 produced, 33903 held

2/- 91720 produced, 84428 held

1/- 18000 produced, 169771 held

3d. – 224000 produced, 182022 held

1d. -144630 produced,  104161 held

How many Internment Camp tokens made their way back to Italy?

Prigionieri in India

The history of Italian prisoners of war in India is a grey’ area for me.  I do not read Italian, and many of the books and articles written about this history is in Italian.

But this history is part of the journey of the Italians prisoners of war who arrived in Australia from 1943 – 1945 and so with my friend ‘Google translate‘ I try to read about this period of imprisonment.

The following extract is by: Edmondo Mazzinghi Testimonial Yol-La mia avventura

Take the time to open the link as there are many drawings of the camps, the tents and the barracks.

The following extract makes sense of a common breach in discipline for Italian POWs in Australia: fastening ground sheet to bed. This was something that the Italians did in India camps, which allowed them a little privacy…

I separé. 
Alcuni nella nostra baracca, come nelle altre, dispongono pezzi di stoffa sui lati della propria branda, come a formare dei separé. Sentiamo la necessità di raccoglierci nei nostri pensieri, di isolarci, per quanto possibile, anche dagli amici, di non vedere nessuno. Vengono così distesi dei fili di ferro, corde o regoli di legno, in modo da appenderci quella stoffa che riusciamo a racimolare, per lo più lenzuola logore e messe in modo da formare una piccola stanzetta che comprende la branda, la sedia e il bureau. Ci isoliamo pur consapevoli di fare cosa sgradita anche ai compagni di sventura e lì dentro al separé non rimane che leggere, dormire, pensare od osservare il tetto di eternit che ci sovrasta.
Ma anche questi separé, col passare del tempo, non riescono a metterci la tranquillità sperata, anzi è sufficiente che qualcuno faccia un movimento o un suono che subito ne nascono litigi o risse.
La pioggia cade con monotona insistenza, le gocce d’acqua picchiano incessanti sulle lastre ondulate di eternit che coprono le nostre baracche dove da quattro anni abbiamo la nostra dimora. Ci troviamo nel bel mezzo della stagione delle grandi piogge, che per tre mesi continui dell’anno cadono sull’immensa catena dell’Himalaya.
Sono le quattro del mattino, non riesco a riprendere sonno. Sta per sorgere un altro dei tanti giorni della prigionia; quanti ne sono trascorsi, non ricordo; certamente tanti, ma quanti ancora ne dovranno passare ? Sono nella stanzetta di legno, nel separé con i miei amici Russo, Menichini, Garetti, Radoccia, Marcheselli, tutti tenenti dello stesso reggimento: un pugliese, un napoletano, un piemontese, un abruzzese e un emiliano. Io il “toscanino”.
Anche oggi abbiamo avuto una lunga discussione animata sulla pronuncia di una parola; poi con l’aiuto di altri amici toscani e di un piccolo dizionario, apparso chissà come, ho avuto ragione. Quasi me ne dispiace, è già accaduto altre volte. Ma questi toscani !
Il “vecio” il piemontese, si rigira sul letto e dà un colpo di tosse, forse anche lui non dormirà. Povero vecio, è stato tutto il giorno a studiare quelle sue equazioni differenziali.
Lamenti quasi umani lacerano l’aria e s’infiltrano attraverso le pareti di tavole nella baracca. Sono sciacalli che scendono dalla montagna e oltrepassato il doppio reticolato, corrono veloci verso i depositi di rifiuti delle cucine dove trovano da mangiare. Poveri animali, anche loro lottano per sopravvivere. Forse la nostra presenza e i nostri avanzi del magro pasto serviranno a qualcosa.
Dodicimila siamo rinchiusi in questi campi, senza sapere quanto ancora dovremo starci. Povera mamma, mi hai lasciato, non hai resistito alla mia lunga assenza; però sapevi che ero prigioniero e che ero salvo. Ma perché volli scriverti fra le righe, in modo da evitare la censura, che io stavo come a S. Matteo a Pisa ? cioè un carcere ? Volli che tu sapessi che io stavo male, al contrario di quanto vi si faceva credere. I prigionieri inglesi in Italia si sapeva che venivano trattati bene, ma noi no, eravamo diventati dei numeri, solo numeri da conta. Per me fu uno sfogo, per te forse quella notizia fu il colpo di grazia e così quando ritornerò non ti rivedrò più.
Piango nel caldo umido della notte che invade la baracca; piano piano, non voglio che mi sentano i miei compagni. Un forte rovescio d’acqua e un altro ancora e di continuo s’infrangono sul tetto e il rumore diventa assordante. Oh ! Posso piangere senza trattenermi: sudo e piango con la pioggia e l’incubo finisce; m’addormento.
Un lento e dolce squillo di tromba ci sveglia. Non è la tromba irruenta e bersagliera della sveglia italiana. E’ una tromba che sembra dispiaciuta di svegliare, ma che però ordina di tornare alla realtà. Che notte è stata anche questa. Lunga notte di tormento.
– Ohé ! sveglia, facciam press – ci voglion contare ancora ! –
– Uh ! che bellezz ! ma quando finirà sta storia. E piove e ‘un la smette più ! –
– Guarda tuscanin, anch’io ci ho la muffa sulle scarpe ! –
Russo, il più anziano di noi, con l’asciugamano sulle spalle e il sapone in mano apre la porta e esce per andare a lavarsi, quando è investito da uno che corre urlando parole incomprensibili; poi mentre si allontana fra la pioggia si capisce meglio:…

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Group II Italian Prisoner of War Camp India

(ICRC V-P-HIST-03469-34)

Memories of home…

The photos tell a little about life in a British prisoner of war camp in India…

A simple cup of coffee

Canteens were established in each camp.  A range of products were sold: head ache tablets, powders for the digestion, toothpaste, cigarette holders, playing cards, combs, shaving cream, lemon squash, flavoured essence, items of clothing,  exercise books, cigarettes.

Have to admire the Italians who made a coffee machine (is this a perculator?).  There are even espresso cups and saucers.

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Italian Prisoners of War: Canteen at Camp No. 4 British Camps in India

(ICRC V-P-HIST-03470-18)

 

Life is a combination of magic and pasta …Federico Fellini

A little flour, a little water, a litte magic and the Italian cooks at Bangalore make fresh pasta…

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Italian Prisoners of War: Bangalore Group I Preparation of Spaghetti

(ICRC V-P-HIST-03470-20 to 034723)

Treasures in Thread

Take a look at four beautiful embroideries sewn in the POW camps in India…

A little background: where did the cloth and thread come from?

Australian POWs in German camps used threads from worn out socks and jumpers as well as cotton from their army issue ‘housewife’.

Indian Publication Volumes 8-9 January 1941, listed items to be included in POW packages eg coloured silks and cotton threads, plain linen or canvas for embroidering.

The Red Cross sent supplies of recreational and educational material in bulk to prisoner of war camps.

The YMCA is also mentioned as a group who not only contributed books to Australian PW camps but were known also to provide material for tapestry, carpentry, embroidery and leatherwork.

The canteen at Camp No. 22 in India sold balls of mercerized cotton (like Coats Mercer Crochet Cotton).

Cloth used was from a variety of sources eg handkerchief, calico, canvas, cotton; salvaged or repurposed materials.

Treasures in Thread

Treasured keepsakes, given as gifts to Queensland farming families or taken home to Italy come in many forms.  One does not necessarily pair needlework with Italian soldiers. Possibly a skill taught in the camps to wile away the hours of monotony.  The hands of farmers and soldiers were capable of producing the most delicate needlework.

Antonio Fracasso embroided this handkerchief in June 1941 in a camp at Bangalore India.  He was captured at Bardia Libya on 6th January 1941.  These details give an estimation about how long the prisoners were held in Libya and Egypt before sailing for India… a few months at the most.

Fracasso. Embroidery A XIX EF

Salvatore Morello took his embroidered work home to his wife and daughter. The Sacred Heart of Mary (Sacro Cuore di Maria) was worked on canvas.  The angels’ banner reveals that it was created 1942 in India.

Morello Embroidery 1942 India

Sacro Cuore di Maria

(photo courtesy of Luigi Tommasi )

Knight on Horse was embroidered by Francesco Pintabona who stayed with the Harsant family at Warril View via Boonah.  Made into a cushion, the fabric has yellowed with age, but the embroidery shows a calm hand an a good eye. It was made while Frankie was in a camp in India.

Francesco Pintabona

Helen Mullan (nee Rackley) explains this about her embroidered gift: Before he left the farm, Domenico gave me the needlework of “Madonna and Child”.  He had painstakingly worked on a men’s handkerchief, when in a prison camp in India, I believe.  It was kept folded in an envelope for many years.  It is my special treasure, a reminder of Domenico, and I felt I needed to share this treasure with everyone, so I had it framed.  It has pride of place in my China Cabinet. You can see that is a combination of needlework and drawing with a painted background.  I have often wondered if he ran out of cotton as there are sections which have not been embroidered like the feet and the arms of the angel. It looks like he copied the image because you can see his pencilled in grid pattern.  As an adult, I reflect upon what it must have been like in the POW camp in India and the hours he spent embroidering this “Madonna and Child”.

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Embroidery by Domenico Mascuilli

(photo courtesy of Joanne Tapiolas)

Another beautiful embroidery made in Derradoon India in 1942 can be viewed at Embroidery made by an Italian POW

An embroidery sewn in Australia by Italian POW: Gayndah Australia

Bouquet of Australia Wildflowers was crafted by Domenico Petruzzi who lived with the Robinson family at Glen Ellen via Gayndah.  The lettering at the bottom was Domenico’s addition: Remember Domenico Petruzzi Prisoner of War.

Gayndah Tapestry (2)

Embroidery by Domenico Petruzzi Q4 Gayndah

(photo courtesy of Joanne Tapiolas)

Crocifisso Salvatore Martinicca’s  embroidered  handkerchief was sewn while he was in England: Saint Antonio di Padova  

Today it is called ‘Embroidery Therapy’ but during WW 2, embroidery was a recreational and theraputic past time; a means to keeping the hands and the minds occupied during the long months of confinement in POW camps.

During WW 1, soldiers recuperating in hospital were given embroidery to help keep them busy.

In India

Tripepi 10 - Copy

Clothing Inventory for Italian POWs in India

(NAA: A7919 C98988 Tripepi, Domenico)

Information about the prisoner of war camps in India is difficult to find.  The British oversaw the operations of these camp sites, many of which had been used during the Boer War.

Italian Prisoners of War in India is a guide for ordering a copy of the record relating to Italians who spent time in POW camps in India.

It is thanks to a number of Italian families that we can see and read about some of the experiences of Italian prisoners of war who were then transferred to Australia.

Adriano Zagonara, Andriano Zagonara and a group of Italian POWs in India

(photos courtesy of Paola Zagonara)

Paola Zagonara remembers the stories her father Adriano Zagonara told her about working and living in India:

Paola Zagonara wrote,  “Mio padre raccontava che erano nel campo di Bangalore,e che dovevano costruire I binari della ferrovia, che pativano la fame perche’il rancio era solo una scodella di riso integrale al giorno, e che era una festa quando riuscivano a catturare un serpente:lo arrostivano e se lo mangiavano sul posto, cosi’assumevano proteine della carne,e si mantenevano in salute.Me lo raccontava quando eravamo a tavola ed io non volevo mangiare, ma allora ero piccola e non capivo molto….un caro saluto!”

 

 

Ferdinando Pancisi and Reference from POW Doctor in India

(photos courtesy of  Tammy Morris and Nicola Cianti)

Ferdinando Pancisi remembers:

[I was in India for ] 2 years. I was working in the camp hospital. The doctor there wrote a letter of reference for me, here is the paper…He (the doctor) said that when you go back to Italy and you want to work in a hospital, give this letter to the doctors and they’ll surely give you a job.

He (the doctor) said that when you go back to Italy and you want to work in a hospital, give this letter to the doctors and they’ll surely give you a job. I was fine, I didn’t want for anything. I was doing a lot, male nurse, pharmacist, I did most things, because the doctor would just visit and leave!

[The doctor was a prisoner] Yes, the whole camp was run by prisoners. We made a hospital there just for the prisoners…

The 2nd World War was over in Italy but Japan was still going. In fact, our ship which transferred us to Australia was escorted by British destroyer ships.

(Interview with Ferdinando Pancisi 21 October 2107: Interviewers: Tammy Morris and Nicola Cianti)

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Salvatore Morello : Memories of India

(photos courtesy of Luigi Tommasi)

Salvatore Morello and Pietro Pepe were in India together and than transferred to work on a Boonah district farm.

They came to Australia on the Mariposa. Three ships came to Melbourne from India at that time. There were a total of 4056 Italians on the ships. Mariposa, SS Mount Vernon and Vernon Castle arrived in Melbourne 26.4.44. On board were 8 officers and 4048 ORs From Melbourne, the Italian POWs were put on trains and taken to Cowra for processing.

Sacred Heart of Maria was embroidered by Salvatore while in India.  The words 1942 and India are sewn into the banner held by the angels.

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Luigi Iacopini with a group of Italian prisoners of war in a camp in India

(photo courtesy of Raffaele Iacopini)

life was monotonous and over time many of the men felt they were forgotten and became more desperate.  Health was the most serious worry.  At the camp, at Ramgarh many succumbed to beriberi and typhoid fever, ‘at an alarming rate’. The camp turned into a sea of mud and was filled with mosquitoes when the rains started.  Several hundred Italians died while interned during the war in India, some from natural causes but the majority from illnesses caught while in confinement.  For prisoners of war of all different nationalities, the war was characterised by a long, testing time of waiting in camps, longing for letters and hoping that their own news was getting through.  (Khan, Yasmin, The Rah at War: A People’s History of India’s Second World War)

Vincenzo Piciaccia from Pescara del Tronto (Ascoli Piceno) was captured 4th January a914 at Bardia.  From Egypt he was transported to India. The photo below is of a young 23 year old Vincenzo at Bangalore 1943.  He was transported to Australia and arrived in Melbourne 26th April 1944 onboard Mariposa.

Piciacchia Bangalore 1943

Vincenzo Piciaccia Bangalore India 1943

(photo courtesy of Leo Piciaccia)

Filippo Granatelli from Sant’ Elpidio (Ascoli Piceno) was captured at Asmara 6th May 1941.  He did not arrive in Australia until 13th February 1945. The group of Italians  onboard the General William Mitchell departed from India and were the last group of Italian POWs to arrive in Australia. Despite searches, Filippo managed to keep hidden a relic from his time in India, a One Anna note from Prisoner of War Camp Bhopal.

Granatelli India

One Anna from Bhopal

(photo courtesy of Veniero Granatelli)