Tag Archives: Prigionieri di guerra Italiani Q6

Q6 PWCH Home Hill

I am yet to find a photograph taken at the Home Hill hostel.  Military zones, such as this prisoner of war camp, were governed by strict rules and protocols regarding the taking of photos.  According to the regulations, “Group photos of PW allocated through Control Centres for employment in rural industry were NOT permitted” (NAA:A7711)  and while POWs allocated through PWCC had their photos taken by their host families, there is no photographic record of the POWs while working on the Commonwealth Farms, nor of the hostel.  Or maybe there are photos of the POWs at Home Hill hostel that are yet to see the light of day.

The Australian War Memorial holds an amazing array of photographs taken of a number of POW Camp facilities in Australia and group photos of the prisoners of war.  The group photos were taken so that the Italian POWs could purchase a copy to send home.

With so little information known about the Home Hill hostel, I searched the Australian War Memorial (AWM) records to catch a glimpse of my Home Hill POWs.  I had the list of names: 272 but I was not satisfied with names only.

I did not want this group of men to be defined by the few trouble makers who refused to work or escaped and were recaptured.  After all, they were men who were fathers, brothers, husbands and sons.  By the time they walked into the hostel, it had been seven months since Italy had surrendered.  The Allies were making their way north through Italy, but by 28th April 1944 there was a lull in Allied activity due to bad weather:

LONDON. Thursday. – Land
and air fighting has slackened in
Italy because rain and mist are
again shrouding the front lines,
says Reuters correspondent at
Allied Headquarters.
There was harassing artillery
and mortar fire on the Cassino
front and in the nearby Garigliano
River sector.
(News (Adelaide, SA : 1923 – 1954) Friday 28 April 1944 p 1)

Home Hill. The Men

The first group of 115 Italian POWs arrived on 30th April 1944.

These men came from all walks of life. The requirements of the hostel meant that the following occupations were minimum requested and recruited: 1 x Medical Officer, 4 x orderlies, 190 x workers, 10 x cooks and fatigues, 50 x PW capable of driving tractors including mechanics.

Some of their occupations included: police, hairdresser, sculptor, brewer, bookseller, sailor, electrician, tinsmith, tiler, brick layer, linotypist, cyclist, tailor, miller, mason and blacksmith.  Considering that the hostel had not been completed when the first 115 POWs walked into the hostel,  men with trades would have been most welcome.

The photo below taken at Cowra shows three of the Home Hill POWs: Giuseppe Ippolito  – labourer, Salvatore De Micco – farmer and Agostino Leto –  postal clerk.  All three men were in the first group of 115 to be sent to Q6 Home Hill Hostel.

Ippolito De micco Leto

Cowra, NSW. 6 February 1944. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned at No. 12 POW Group. Back row, left to right: 49115 C. Trentino; 49354 G. Ippolito; 49592 A. Poggi; 49107 G. Zunino; 48833 R. Bartoli; 49212 R. Papini; 48863 S. De Micco. Front row: 48939 A. Leto; 49172 A. Mandrini; 57531 B. Protano; 49923 F. Carlone; 45196 A. Ciofani. Note: The number is an assigned POW number.

(AWM Image 030173/11 McInnes, G)

Bogus Cigarettes

May-June 1943

PW Domenico SIGILLO, on transfer from No. 3 Lab. Det. COOK, [to Hay Camp] was found to be carrying two £1 notes rolled in cigarette papers and stored with genuine cigarettes in a tobacco tin.  The tin was half full of tobacco, with a packet of papers and three made cigarettes on top, indicating that the owner had rolled a few cigarettes for future use.  The false cigarettes had a small amount of tobacco each and with the notes tightly rolled in the middle.  SIGILLO also carried four aluminium rings hidden in cotton wool, two silver rings in a tin of talcum powder, Italian notes totalling 150 lire in the hollowed out wooden back of a mirror, razor blades in a hollowed out cake of soap rewrapped and sealed, and 1/- in a pot of cream. As a reward for ingenuity he received 28 days detention.  (NAA: A989, 1943/925/1/97)

Domenico Sigillo is described as 5’ tall, 126lbs, black hair and dark complexion.  He is listed as one of the men in the photo below. When the photo was taken, he was 30 years old.

Hay, NSW. 9 September 1943. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POW) interned at No. 6 POW Group. In this group are known to be: 46279 Giuseppe Morabito; 45374 Salvatore Cardone; 45379 Giuseppe Costa; 46762 Domenico Sigillo; 46274 Giovanni Maisano; 48304 Michele Russo; 47695 Antonio Spano and Antonio Santuoro. Note: The number is an assigned POW number. (AWM Image 030142/13, Photographer Lewecki)

Domenico had been in Australia since 27.5.41, Australia’s first group of Italian prisoners of war.  He was sent to Hay PW Camp NSW and less than a year later he was sent to work on a government railway maintenance project: No. 3 Labour Detachment Cook.  Upon return to Hay Camp, a search of Italians from the Cook group took place.  His ingenious methods to conceal ‘illicit’ items was unveiled. 

In September 1944, Domenico arrived at the Home Hill PW Hostel.  His attitude to work on the Commonwealth Vegetable Project, was rewarded with a two-month transfer to Atherton in far north Queensland. Only 53 of the best and most trusted workers were sent to Atherton to harvest maize from July to September 1945.

When Domenico boarded at train at the Home Hill Railway Station in November 1945, he must have believed that repatriation was looming.

Home Hill Hostel to Gaythorne PW Camp to Cowra PW Camp

On the 23rd December 1946, Domenico boarded the Alcantara. He arrived in Naples c. 22th January 1947, it had been six years since his capture at Tobruk on 21st January 1941.

In Maropati [Reggio Calabria] Domenico had his wife Caterina, two sons and one daughter waiting for his return.

Nonno’s Blanket

Salvatore Di Noia has sent me photo of a grey blanket with light grey stripes. This blanket is his nonno’s blanket from his prisoner of war days in Australia.

Nonno’s Blanket (courtesy of Salvatore Di Noia)

Salvatore Targiani departed Australia on the Oranje, a medical ship, on the 27th March 1943.  The Oranje was the first repatriation of Italian prisoners of war, under special arrangements. Salvatore worked in the 17th Hygiene Unit in Bardia.  His skills as a medical orderly is most likely the reason for his early repatriation.

In Australia, the Italian prisoners of war were issued with 4 blankets for their bedding.  An extra blanket was issued in winter.

The topic of blankets is interesting.

Italians at Sandy Creek Transit Camp in South Australia complained about the quality of the blankets they had been issued. It was claimed that the blankets were made India and were of poor quality.  They requested that these blankets were substituted for Australian made blankets which were of a better quality.

On 27th September 1946, a newspaper reported that the Italians being repatriated on the Chitral from Western Australia, had been given army blankets at Northam Camp but they were to return them to the Australian guards upon arrival in Naples. I see a logistical problem in this directive.  There were up to 3000 Italians repatriated on ships: 4 blankets x 3000 men = 12,000 blankets.  Was it possible that the Australia guards could count every blanket?

 Pasquale Landolfi and Vincenzo Di Pietro from the Home Hill Hostel in north Queensland used their army blankets for suits.  They were found 110 south of Home Hill outside the town of Bowen.  They were dressed in grey suits made from blankets.  There were five Italian tailors at the Home Hill Hostel.

Italian officers in Myrtleford Camp in Victoria made coats from blankets. The photo below shows a rather stylish yet practical coat.  Myrtleford is in the alpine country of northern Victoria: winters have maximum temperature 12 degrees C and minimum temperature 3 degrees C.

Guerre 1939-1945. Camp de Myrtleford. Groupe numéro 27. World War 1939-1945. Myrtleford camp. Group number 27.

1-6-43 Myrtleford Officers Camp (ICRC V-P-HIST-01882-27)

Domenico Modugno’s souvenirs from Australia were blankets. Domenico was sent to Tasmania for farm work and then was sent to V25 Hume Hostel to await repatriation.  His daughter Lucrezia recalls, “From captivity, my father brought home grey-black blankets date 1945 which we used as children in the cold winters.”

A report on a group of Italians from Liverpool Camp mentions that the men were taking home items such as soap, cotton and wool goods purchased from the canteen.  These items were in short supply in Italy. Wool army blankets would have been an appropriate and practical item to ‘souvenir’.

The men boarding the Moreton Bay repatriation ship in 1946 found many ways to strap their blankets to luggage or to make a swag to hang from shoulder to waist.

4-8-46 Repatriation of Italian prisoners of war on the Moreton Bay      

Gentilissima Signorina Irma

A trainee nurse, Irma Vettovalli was working at the Ayr General Hospital during 1944 and 1945 when Italian prisoners of war from Q6 Home Hill Hostel were admitted to the hospital. While the military rule was that Italian prisoners of war were not to fraternise with women, Irma was not about to let military regulations get in the way of her nursing duties.

Pane Irma.jpeg

Trainee Nurse: Irma Vettovalli

(photo courtesy of Pina Vettovalli)

Agostino Leto was admitted to the hospital for chronic appendicitis 29th May 1944.  The story goes that the senior doctor at the hospital refused to operate on a prisoner of war, but the junior doctor, Dr Kelly had no hesitation in acting according to the ethical obligations of his profession.

Once he was admitted to the ward, Irma Vettovalli, realising Agostino had little English, went out of her way to speak with this patient. The Matron ordered Irma to cease her contact with this prisoner and under no circumstance was she to talk to or nurse Agostino again.  A plucky 18-year-old, Irma offered her resignation to Dr Kelly, without reason.  Upon questioning Irma, Dr Kelly identified the issue and told Irma to continue as before.

Agostino spent one month at the Ayr Hospital before returning to Q6 Hostel on 29th June 1944  but he did not return home to Prizzi Italy until January 1947. Upon his return to Italy, his recount of his one month hospital stay to his mother, prompted her to write a letter to Irma. Irma’s care and ability to speak Italian, was remembered and retold with great affection and appreciation by Agostino.

Prizzi 20 February 1947

Gentilissima Signorina Irma,

…As a mum it softened by heart and I feel an ache in which I must thank you through this sheet of paper.  I hope you accept my poor letter writing… [my son] says that yours [your visits] as a nurse were special.  He found you and only you will remain in my heart and you will be unforgettable to my dear son.  I wish that I could see you in person so I can tell you all that my poor heart feels, that I cannot put on paper.

And so my most gracious Miss, this is a small token of my esteem and from all my family to pass on to your dear ones.  I wish you good fortune and every kind of good.  Consider me your unknown friend. Rosa Leto.”

Pane, Irma Envelope

 

Mail from Rosa Leto to Irma Vettovalli

(photo courtesy of Pina Vettovalli)

Held in high regard, Dr Kelly, the medical superintendent wrote in December 1945, “she [Irma] gave eminent satisfaction, on account of her obedience, application to duty and intelligence.”

In 1992, Irma Vettovalli (now Mrs Irma Pane) received an award from the Alpini and Friends Group “expressing their profound gratitude for Irma’s ‘Noble gesture of Human Dedication for Italian Prisoners of War recuperating in hospital during the war period’.”

Irma wrote about those times, “Because of my dedication to Nursing in Ayr, I came in contact with people from all walks of life, colour and creed and having had respect and compassion for all during their illness, I too gained their respect.  Re- the war years, on some occasions only the ignorant would make hurtful remarks…”

Those war years were complicated years for Irma’s family.  Enrico Vettovalli, Irma’s father, was interned in February 1942 and sent to Gaythorne for processing and then to Loveday Internment Camp.  He was a naturalised British Subject and had been resident in Australia since March 1922.  Enrico was interned until May 1943 when he was released to work for Manpower SA.  In November 1943, he returned to Queensland.

Adding to the complexity of war, Irma’s brother Donato had in January 1942, been called to duty in the Australian Army. He was released for discharge in May 1945. Born in Italy, he was three years old when he migrated to Australia with his mother 1924.

Agostino Leto is seated first on the left.

 

Leto 3

Cowra, NSW. 6 February 1944. Group of Italian prisoners of war interned at No. 12 POW Group. Back row, left to right: 49115 C. Trentino; 49354 G. Ippolito; 49592 A. Poggi; 49107 G. Zunino; 48833 R. Bartoli; 49212 R. Papini; 48863 S. De Micco.

Front row: 48939 A. LETO; 49172 A. Mandrini; 57531 B. Protano; 49923 F. Carlone; 45196 A. Ciofani. Note: The number is an assigned POW number. (Australian War Memorial Image 030173/11)

 

 

 

I want to go home…

Crescenzio RAVO was 18 years old when he was captured at Tobruk on 22nd January 1941.  He spent his 19th birthday on the Queen Elizabeth as she made her way to Australia, arriving in Sydney 15th October 1941.

Ravo 1

 Crescenzio Ravo: 19 years old Cowra PW & I Camp 17.11.41

NAA: A7919, C100635

His 20th and 21st birthdays were celebrated in Cowra and his 22nd and 23rd birthdays at Q6 Home Hill hostel. Three weeks after his 24th birthday, he escaped from Murchison POW Camp.

While he was at Q6 Home Hill hostel, Sept 1944 to November 1945, he had spent 67 days in detention.  He has escaped from Q6 and was found at Iona School and had also gone walkabout a couple of times while on work duty. Once in Murchison, he damaged property of the Commonwealth, used threatening language and then escaped again.

History is interesting. The full picture does not always reveal itself.  In a moment of sentimentality, I reflect that Crescenzio was the age of my sons, while I have been undertaking this research.  I wonder how they would act and react at being in such an unfamiliar environment. Both would endure their situation, very differently.

I think however angry Crescenzio was, however brazen and sullen, the final page in his file helps tell his story; he just wanted to go home.

Repatriation orders were for all Italian prisoners of war to transported to Italy.  Those men who were Italian, but were residents of Libya or Eritrea or Ethiopia were placed in an uncertain situation.  Home was not Italy, and therefore once in Naples, would transfer to their home in a ex-Italian colony be automatic? This is the situation Crescenzio found himself in: repatriation to Italy, but how would he get home to Tripoli? Did repatriation orders include directives for those Italians whose home was not in Italy?  Would Crescenzio be stranded in Naples without the means to make his way to Libya?

The following entry answers these questions:

War Diary: 2 Sep 46 “Commands have been informed that except in exceptional circumstances Italian PW will not be repatriated to former Italian colonies.”

Ravo 2

Letter by Ravo to PW Camp Authorities

NAA: A7919, C100635

What is known about this situation is that a return to Libya was difficult.

Here are the journeys of two other Italian soldiers who were Libyan residents:

From ‘A Father’s Love’: Liborio Bonadonna

But Liborio’s return to his family in Tripoli was further delayed. Once he arrived in Naples, he required an operation.  Fighting bureaucracy, he tried to gain permission several times to reach Libya and his wife and parents.

Liborio’s grandson, Liborio Mauro says that “He told her [my grandmother] if I’m not able to join you, I would like to go back in Australia. After 3 times, he finally joined my grandmother in Libya where my father Carmelo was born in Tripoli in 1949.

Abele Damini was also a resident of Libya.   Valerio Damini writes, “After the war, Abele came to Afragola (Napoli province) identification center, he did not wait for official re-embarkation and, boarding clandestinely in an illegal ship, he tried to reach Libya coast by himself. He then be imprisoned in Libyan prison (for I do not know how long), where he got sick and died.”

After six years in captivity, these Italians who were residents of the colonies, deserved quick and free passage to their homes and families.

Report Card

The Italian POWs at Q6 Home Hill were a mixed group.  Mr Bulcock, the director of the Department of Commerce and Agriculture, had reported that out of 230 POWs at Home Hill, only 100 was of any value. Accordingly, that left 130 POWs with questionable work ethics.

Here is a smattering of comments about some of those 130 Italians:

Unfit for Hostel Control Conditions, poor worker, character: BAD, agitator, unsuitable for rural work, tired to get clothes and sandals to POW in detention to assist his escape, sullen, refuses to work, bad influence, insolent, insubordinate, trouble maker, connected to tunnel in No 8 Camp 1942, keen Fascist, dangerous, cunning, crafty, refused to be finger printed, bad influence on the moral of others, ardent Fascist, adopted a go slow attitude to work, inclined to be obstinate, joined a hunger strike for 48 hours while in detention.

Unfortunately for the ‘100 of any value’, there is scant information available about the hostel, let alone information on their ‘outstandingly co-operative behaviour’.

Following are extracts of records for three Home Hill Italian POWs who were considered ‘unfit’ or ‘unsuitable for rural work and were transferred to Murchison.

Report Card 1

(NAA: A7919, C100735)

Report Card 2

NAA: A7917, C103433

Report Card 3

NAA: A7917, C100723

Snippets from Q6 Home Hill Hostel

What do we know about the Q6 Hostel at Home Hill?

Quite a lot, that is, about the bricks and mortar of the facility.  I can tell you that the Sullage Treatment Plant cost 970 pounds, that the dimensions of the drying room was 34′ x 17’4″ and that each of the ten sleeping huts were fitted with 6 x 75 watt lamps in E.I shades.  The layout of the QM and Ration Store and Admin Hut are illustrated in the plan below…

QM Ration 1

NAA: J153, T1595

What do we know about the men at this site?

Quite a lot in that the names and details of 272 Italian prisoners of war who lived on this site have been documented.  There were men named: Libertario, Bruno, Ambrogio, Gisberto, Eupidio, Paride, Primo, Orlando, Ciro, Urbano.  The majority were born in Italy although Giovanni Beni was born in Argentina, Tommaso Norton in Michigan USA,  Francesco Sica in New York. From the north to the south, east coast and west, they were men form across Italy: Ciro Puntel was from Paluzza Udine and Antonio Perez from Floridia Siracusa.

Further debunking the myth that ALL Italian soldiers were poor peasant farmers from the south are the diverse range of occupations: sculptor, book seller, student, policeman, linotypist, chrome plater, waiter,electrician, miner, tailor, mason.

 What do we know about these husbands and sons?

From the banks of the Burdekin River the following letters were written:

August 27-8-1945

… I am very happy that all the family is well as I assure you that I too am getting by very well and I hope that will continue to the end. … my heart is full of joy that you are well, at peace and that my parents look after you well with our son Eugenio. Rosina my sorrow is for our long distance.. That our son is five years old and does not know me but all will pass and when I return … My Rosina don’t talk to me any more about my sister Caterina and why she is keeping away, lets’ leave it at that I close with the pen but not the heart that always thinks of you, big kisses to you and to our son Eugenio big kisses from me who is your husband deeply in his heart…

Francesco Martucci

(Letter courtesy of Reinhard Krieger)

Letter writer Francesco Martucci is seated second from the left.

Martucci, F 3980530

Cowra, NSW. 16 September 1943. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POW) interned at No. 12 POW Group. Back row, left to right: 45797 G. Gravagno; 49597 C. Pantisano; 45656 F. Feraglioni; 45935 R. Lauro; 45860 A. Galasso; 48552 I. Moscatelli. Front row: 49890 V. Penna; 46127 F. Martucci; 46753 D. Sangiuliano; 49484 O. Goffredi. Note: The number is an assigned POW number. (AWM Image 030149/12 Photographer Lewecki)

21 October 1945

Dear parents

Every week I always send you one or two memos: and you my dear ones, what do you do. You don’t write to me any more. Maybe you have forgotten your distant son. I will never believe that. It may be the distance that causes a long delay in the mail. I am in excellent health as I hope you all are… Hoping that some words of comfort from you will reach me soon as I am now sending to you. Thinking of you always I send you greetings and kisses . Your affectionate son  Massimo Kisses to my little nephews and nieces

Massimo Gatti

(Letter courtesy of Reinhard Krieger)

Letter writer Massimo Gatti is standing third from left.

Gatti, M 4110896

Cowra, NSW. 16 September 1943. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POW) interned at No. 12 POW Group. Back row, left to right: 49332 E. Bartolotti; 49793 R. Accorsi; 45739 M. Gatti; 46096 M. Matteini; 46054 A. Matteini; 45680 N. Falcioni. Front row: 46110 A. Montanari; 45737 B. Gambuti; 45005 B. Arbasi; 49364 G. Di Gloria. Note: The number is an assigned POW number. (AWM Image 030147/09 Photographer Lewecki)

 How much interaction was their between Australians and the POWs?

Not sure!  We know that civilians were employed by the Commonwealth Vegetable project as supervisors for farm work.  Their knowledge of crop growing in the tropics was vital in training the Italians in large scale crop production.

We know there was a cross over between Land Army Girls and Italian prisoners of war at least on Fowler’s farm. This was not uncommon and farms in Stanthorpe and Gympie had both work forces employed on their farms.

Kent Fowler confirmed that the Italians at Q6 had concerts.  Kent says that his father, uncle and grandfather would go up river to the concerts performed by the Italian POWs.

At times during the operation of Q6 electrical contractors and members of the Civil Constructional Corps were employed at Q6. Arthur Howie was the only electrical contractor within 40 mile radius available to install 125 lights and 4 power points in the timber framed buildings.

On  12th  September 1944, Thomas Ryan a plumber by trade was injured while at the POW Camp Home Hill.  He was employed by the Civil Constructional Corps as a member of a team working on top of a building at P.O.W. Camp Home Hill when a sheet of fibrolite gave way under his weight and he fell through the roof.  First aid was rendered at the POW Camp Home Hill by Italian POW doctor.  The doctor at the time was 2nd Lieutenant Anielleo Curzio, a surgeon.  Curzio was assigned to the 224 Field Hospital and was captured at Tobruk on 22nd January 1941.

We also know that a number of Italian prisoners of war were admitted to the Ayr Hospital and that Trainee Nurse Irma Vettovalli nursed at least two of the men.

Pina Vettovalli (nee Riviera) remembers clearly the day a truck pulled up outside the Delta Café in Ayr where she was working. Pina recalls, “It was a hot day, and one of those trucks with the timber railings and a canvas top pulled up.  The men in the back were in working clothes and the boss who looked Greek came in and ordered milkshakes.  I could see the men in the back of the truck, and it was a hot day, so I filled up with water a couple of those metal milkshake cups and took it out to the men.  The boss, and it was more the way he said it, but he said, ‘You know what you did?  You are not to be talking to those men. You are not to go anywhere near them.’  I was only a teenager, and I was just being courteous.  I found out later, that those men I had given water to, where some of the prisoner of war from the Home Hill camp.”  The boss man could have been Concetto Zappala or Sam Casella the Home Hill hostel Army interpreters.

Jocelyn Gould reminisces that her father, Bob Mann, was in the army and “I remember him saying that he was a guard there for some time and there was some sort of agriculture going on which I think may have been growing vegetables.  Another farm used was owned by George Fowler just up the road from ours.  Like most who have served in wars, dad rarely spoke of that time. He was also at Stuart Creek prison where there were other Italian internees, some of whom I think he may have known.

Helen Gelling recalls that the Italians had ‘market gardens, they had borders around the gardens which they sourced from the hills’.

John Milan recalls that Ian Becke sourced bricks from the onsite bakery and that he used to build his pizza oven.

Allison Ready and Jennifer Reid remembers that their father   was a camp cook in the POW camp up that way. Their dad’s name is William Robert Young. He only died 6 years ago aged 90 years. He talked about his life to us so much but unfortunately like most family members we didn’t write down details. If he was still alive we could simply just ask him. So many memories and local history dies with the oldies.

What remains on the Q6 Hostel site?

Charlie Scuderi remembers: “We went there many years ago with friends who had metal detectors. All that remained was a bunch of concrete slabs. Some of these slabs appeared to be shower rooms judging by the drains in the floors. Others could have been toilet blocks. Others? Who knows. The metal detectors only found nails, nails and more nails. Old timers tell of ‘truckloads’ of these prisoners wearing purple shirts being transported to this place.”

Helen Gelling shared: “There is not much left now as it was ripped up to plant cane. But there are some foundations and sewerage on the river bank. It is private property now. The managers house was on our farm.”

On the banks of the river you can find a banana plant, custard apple and citrus tree poking through the weed and rubbish shrub.  Possibly, these are remnants of the Q6 site.

IMG_2512

Banana on the banks of the Burdekin River at site of Q6 Home Hill

(photo courtesy of Joanne Tapiolas)

 

 

Musical Memories

The Music Book of Franco (Ciccio) Cipolla

The government documents give us the rules and regulations, transport movements, roles and responsibilities but it is the personal souvenirs that provide us with a grass roots understanding of life as a prisoner of war.

Nino Cipolla, Ciccio’s son remembers how his father told him he gifted his guitar to his ‘farming’ family. While Ciccio was attached to Q6 PWC Hostel Home Hill, Ciccio along with 52 other POWs were sent to the Atherton Tablelands for the 1945 maize harvest. Ciccio was on the Atherton Tablelands when peace was declared after the dropping of the bombs on Japan.  Maybe, the maize farmer was the receiver of the guitar.

There are other stories of banjos, mandolins and gramophones being in the possession of the Italian prisoners of war and many stories about their beautiful singing voices.

Ciccio’s Music Book however offers a unique insight into the music of the day.

Meticulously notated are ‘Valtzer’ ‘Tango Fox Trot’ ‘Rumba’ ‘One Step’ ‘Mazurka’ ‘Valtzer Lento’ and ‘Tango Argentine’.  Unexpectedly Ciccio’s music features an interesting mix of Italian folk music, Italian popular music and American Big Band music.

It is easy to ‘dance’ back in time to Ciccio’s music. Fox trot to Violino Tzigano . Enjoy a waltz to The Missouri Waltz and Speranze Perdute. Try a tango to Play to Me Gipsy or rumba to La Paloma.  Be taken back to Italy with Non Me Ne Importa Niente and Tra Veglia e Sonno. Travel to America with Begin the Beguine and SouthAmerican Joe.

With thanks to Ciccio Cipolla we have an invaluable personal reference and insight into the life of a POW in Queensland.

On the cover of the music book, Ciccio wrote Home Hill.  Ciccio arrived at Q6 PWC Hostel Home Hill in April 1944 and departed in November 1945.  He was one of 272 Italian prisoners of war who called the hostel on the banks of the Burdekin River home.  Farmer, Kent Fowler from up river Home Hill, remembers his father and uncle talking about the concerts they attended at the POW camp.

A special thank you to Ciccio’s son Nino and grandson Jack for sharing the music and songs of the Italian prisoners of war.

Music Book Cover Franco Cipolla Home Hill IMG_2243

(photo courtesy of Jack Cipolla)

Music has a healing power.  It has the ability to take people out of themselves for a few hours.

Elton John

 

Childhood Memories…

Ross Di Mauro’s dad had the farm on Block 182 Home Hill. Ross remembers his father’s story about how in the middle of the night, two Italian POWs who had escaped from the Home Hill POW camp came to their farm.

Ross’s dad gave them a meal, a bit of money and food and sent them on their way.  But before they left, he did ask them why they thought that his house was a ‘safe’ house to visit.  They replied that they saw clothes on the line and felt that the stitching had been done by Italians.  There were a number of unsuccessful escapes from the Q6 Prisoner of War Hostel Home Hill.  The furthest afield the escapees were found was at Bowen.

Another memory associated with prisoners of war is from the Stanthorpe district. Ross and his family spent some time during the war at a farm at Ballandean via Stanthorpe.  One of the stories about the POWs there was that there were a number of POWs in the district and they would get together on a Sunday and this was against the rules.  If a suspicious vehicle would be seen coming down the road, they would all scatter, hiding amongst the grape vines and fruit trees

 Felici, Sesto 3901142 Balladean Military Police

Cowra, NSW. 16 September 1943. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POW) interned at No. 12 POW Group. Back row, left to right: 49354 A. Biagioni; 46612 P. Rossi; 49906 B. Rodofile; 45671 S. Felici; 45091 C. Bono; 48923 F. Carlone. Front row: 48942 G. Filippelli; 46085 D. Martinuzzi; 45627 B. Falchi; 46807 M. Salvini. Note: The number is an assigned POW number. (AWM Image 030147/14, Photographer: Lewecki)

Ross says of the Ballandean POWs, “There was this one fellow that stood out. He was quite imposing, he had a shaved head and a big beard and he had a stick/baton in his hand. It seemed like he kept the others in line, like he was a policeman.” Tracking down this POW was not difficult.  Sesto Felici was from Pieve Sant  Giovanni Arezzo and his occupation was ‘Military Police’.  From February 1944, Felici was working on the farm of the Colvin Bros at Ballandean. The Cowra photo of Sesto Felici did not surprise Ross as this is exactly how he remembered the Ballandean ‘policeman’.

Ross also remembers that there was some trouble between the farmer and his POWs and it was written about in the newspapers. The words the Italian said stuck in Ross’s memory, “No like Calaboose”.  As reported in a newspaper, Attilio Corgiolu spoke these words after he and his friend, Antonio Perduto emerged from a Military Court hearing held in Stanthorpe in January 1945.

Calaboose

(Truth (Qld.: 1900-1954) Sunday 28 January 1945, page 24)

It is interesting what one remembers and remarkable when a memory is given a context.  Ross’s childhood memories highlight that the children of those times, have accurate memories which can be validated by photos, newspaper reports and government documents.

 

Keeping in Touch

8th January 1945

Another Q6 Home Hill Italian!

With technology, people of the 21st century can keep contact with friends and family and find people with ease.

Rewind 1945: the only means of communication was with a letter but if you were a prisoner of war, letters were censored. The unseen communication network for Italian prisoners of war however must have been effective.

Word of mouth and ‘sleight of hand’ postal services keep friends and family in touch.

Luigi Tesoro had many friends, as his intercepted letter indicates.  Tesoro was a baker from Naples.  He had been captured in the Battle of Bardia 4th January 41 and arrived in Australia onboard Queen Mary 27 May 1941.  He spent time in Hay, then Q6 PWCH Home Hill before being returned to Hay for 120 days detention.

While serving his 120 days sentence, Tesoro was awarded 3 days No. 1 Punishment (which according to other records is bread and water)*on 8th January 1945 for having written a letter to Tafuto Giuseppe#, Yanco and for having given the letter to Esposito Carmine# to deliver at Yanco.  Letter was found when Esposito was searched.

Dearest brother Giuseppe.

I am writing you this letter to let you know I am in the best of health and at the same time I want to assure myself about you and all my friends.  Dearest Giuseppe I am very surprised you have not replied to my letter and a note I sent you by our friend Cavaliero@ and so I want to know why. Now I want to tell you that when I finish the 9 months prison they will probably send me to Murchison, but I am not sure.  I am sending you the address of our friend Giovanni Fruttaldo!, who is in No. 13 POW G.  Australia where is perhaps is our friend Comare.  I warn you when writing to me not to use my name.  Let me know how the other friends are, their names and where they live.  Enough I won’t write any more… Let me know where your friend Comariello Gennaro is and send me his address.  Your friend Giovanni, the brother of ??? where he is.  I met him at Lecce, Mario who worked in the hospital, Sbrighi Edgardo& has gone to Cowra.  Biasi^ the brother-in-law of friend Tatosi Cicco is on the farms.

(NAA:A7919, C98830)

Quite amazing how the Italians from one camp knew where their friends were or knew information about the comings and goings of their friends.  Love the comment: I warn you when writing to me not to use my name. There must have been a complicated unwritten system for letter writing and passing on information.

*7 days detention = 3 days bread and water, 4 days Australian army rations.  I can imagine that 4 days of Australian army rations was quite an insult for the Italians.

#Carmine Esposito (Baker from Naples) was released from Hay Detention compound 7th January 1945 and was returning to Yanco where Giuseppe Tafuto (Baker from Naples) was.

&Edgardo Sbrighi a baker from Forli was working on a farm at N6 PWCC Dorrigo

@ Possibly Celestino Cavalieri who was in Hay Detention Barracks at the same time and returned to Yanco.

! Giovanni Fruttaldo was from Naples and came to Australia on the Queen Mary in May 1941.

^Biasi – Possibly Biasi Gazzilli who worked on farms at V2 PWCC Colac.

Comare, Comariello and Tatosi – names are spelt incorrectly or are in code, as records cannot be found for these names.

Tesoro Cowra

Cowra, NSW. 6 February 1944. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned at No. 12 POW Group. Back row, left to right: 49564 G. Di Gloria; 49888 F. Palma; 46127 F. Martucci; 45665 G. Fruttaldo; 49505 L. Rubano; 46838 L. Tesoro; 49549 V. Morfeo. Front row: 57093 C. Calia; 46110 A. Montanari; 57147 A. Cerrutti; 45954 G. Luciano; 49585 A. Pastore. Note: The number is an assigned POW number. (AWN Image 030173/03 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)