Tag Archives: Liverpool Prisoner of War & Internment Camp

Waiting to Go Home

It is 1946 and Italian prisoners of war have been removed from farm work in preparation for repatriation. They have been brought into the camps: Hay, Cowra, Sandy Creek, Marrinup, Brighton, Murchison, Gaythorne and Liverpool. By May 1946 the prisoner of war camps at Brighton, Gaythorne, Marrinup and Sandy Creek had closed.

Loveday Camp which had been an internment camp is re-opened and men from Sandy Creek transferred to Loveday Camp.  Northam Camp is opened as a prisoner of war camp to accommodate the men from Marrinup Camp. Brighton prisoners of war are transferred to Murchison or Loveday Camp and Gaythorne men are transferred to Hay or Cowra Camps.

A small number of Italian prisoners of war were allocated to temporary hostels at Australian Military Forces (AMF) sites to undertake maintenance, repair and storage work at these sites. 

Many AMF camps had been built on private land leased by the Commonwealth Government.  With an end to hostilities, these sites had to be prepared for ‘hand back’ to property owners. Those sites which continued as AMF camps also required maintenance and storage work.

Some of these hostels were established as early as July 1945.

The type of work varied from site to site:

maintenance painting and general repairs

drainage, road and area maintenance

general labour duties

repair of vehicles

scraping and painting of marine craft,

placement of equipment into ‘dead’ storage condition

repair and maintenance of MT vehicles

receiving reconditioning, identifying, labelling, stacking signal equipment

barracks maintenance

demolishing camouflage works and preparing equipment for storage

demolishing barbed wire

general rehabilitation of land.

Some of these activities were photographed by the Australian Army photographers.

LIVERPOOL, NSW 1945-11-23. PRISONER OF WAR AND INTERNMENT CAMP. ITALIAN PRISONER OF WAR Q. DI-SAUTS PAINTING ONE OF THE ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS. (AWM Image 123754 PHOTOGRAPHER L. CPL E. MCQUILLAN)

MOOREBANK, NSW. 1946-08-19. AN ITALIAN PRISONER OF WAR BALING BLANKETS AT 1 RETURNED STORES DEPOT (AWM Image 131270 Photographer Reginald Mervyn Barrett)

28.6.46 Italian prisoners-of-war constructing a drain at 3rd Base Ordnance Depot, Bandiana, Victoria (AWM Image 129831 Photographer Keith Benjamin Davis) Bandiana drew workers from V25 Hume Hostel.

BANDIANA, VIC. 1946-09-17. AN ITALIAN PRISONER OF WAR HELPS STACK JEEP TRAILERS IN DEAD STORAGE AT 1 AUSTRALIAN ORDNANCE VEHICLE PARK.  (AWM Image 13161 Photographer Keith Benjamin Davis) Bandiana drew workers from V25 Hume Hostel.

MOOREBANK, NSW. 1946-01-31. RITONDO MARCELLO PWI56356, AN ITALIAN PRISONER OF WAR CAPTURED AT BENGHAZI, HOSES A GARDEN AT NO. 5 AUSTRALIAN BASE ORDNANCE DEPOT (BOD) (AWM Image 125313 Photographer Ernest Mervyn McQuillan

LIVERPOOL, NSW 1945-11-21. PRISONER OF WAR AND INTERNEE CAMP. PRIVATE G. CARPENTERE , AN ITALIAN PRISONER OF WAR, MENDING BOOTS IN THE CAMP BOOT REPAIR SHOP. OVER 10,000 PAIRS OF BOOTS HAVE BEEN REPAIRED HERE FOR THE AUSTRALIAN MILITARY FORCES (AMF). PRISONER OF WAR LABOUR COSTS 1/7d (17 CENTS) PER PAIR OF BOOTS. (AWM Image 122180 PHOTOGRAPHER L. CPL E. MCQUILLAN)

MOOREBANK, NSW. 1946-08-19. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR WHO ARE WORKING AT 1 RETURNED STORES DEPOT UNLOADING A TRUCK INSIDE ONE OF THE QUANSON HUTS (AWM Image 131220 Photographer Reginald Mervyn Barrett)

MOOREBANK, NSW. 1946-01-30. NO. 5 BASE ORDNANCE DEPOT. BRUNO ZAMMUNER PWI55918, AN ITALIAN PRISONER OF WAR (POW), WHITEWASHING A GARDEN FENCE. POW’S DO A LOT OF SIMILAR WORK AT THE DEPOT. (AWM Image 125223 PHOTOGRAPHER L. CPL E. MCQUILLAN)

LIVERPOOL, NSW 1945-11-21. PRISONER OF WAR AND INTERNEE CAMP. TWO ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR ADMIRING PHOTOS OF PIN UP GIRLS ON THE WALLS OF THE TENT REPAIR WORKSHOP. (AWM Image 122179 PHOTOGRAPHER L. CPL E. MCQUILLAN)

LIVERPOOL, NSW 1945-11-21. PRISONER OF WAR AND INTERNEE CAMP. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR REPAIRING AUSTRALIAN ARMY FURNITURE IN THE CAMP CARPENTERS SHOP. (AWM Image 122178 PHOTOGRAPHER L. CPL E. MCQUILLAN)

LIVERPOOL, NSW 1945-11-21. PRISONER OF WAR AND INTERNEE CAMP. LEFT TO RIGHT: PRIVATE (Leonardo) ARENA AND PRIVATE (Angelo) PAGLIARI, ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR, WORKING IN THE ENGINEERS SHOP. (AWM 122181 PHOTOGRAPHER L. CPL E. MCQUILLAN)

In May 1946, Easter Command requested a list of Italians and their trades from Hay PW Group as per below. It was an effort to match the skills of the Italians to relevant projects.

The list for Camp 8 Hay:

Regulations for Photographs of Prisoners of War

The following information is from the Report on the Directorate of Prisoners of War and Internees (NAA: A7711, VOLUME 1 History: Report on the Directorate of Prisoners of War and Internees at Army Headquarters, Melbourne, 1939-1951: Volume 1 [pp1-279] and Volume 2 [pp280-476] [includes matters relating to internees, prisoners of war, war crimes, Prisoners of War Information Bureau in Australia and a report on the Cowra Breakout escape attempt by Japanese Prisoners of War in August 1944])

This document provides the regulations regarding the policy on PHOTOGRAPHS relating to prisoners of war. 

Following the regulations I have included photos and additional information relating to this history.

12. PW Regulations gave authority to Camp Commandants to arrange the photographing of PW for Identification and record purposes, Reg. 11 (2). These photographs were forwarded to the Prisoners of War Information Bureau for inclusion with other basic records.

13. Provision was also made to prohibit PW from having in their possessions any photographic apparatus, vide Camp Order No. 13, para 15 (a). Strict compliance with this order was demanded at all times.

14. The International Red Cross delegate was authorised to take photographs in PW Camps under the same conditions as applicable to internment camps, vide Chapter 20.  Approval was also given for representatives of the Department of Information to visit camps for the purpose of taking photographs for record purposes only and subject in each case to Command approval.  Press reporters and other photographers were not allowed to enter camps as published stories and pictures could quite easily create wrong impressions and cause unfortunate repercussions.

15. Group photographs of German and Italian PW held in camps, labour detachments or Hostels, and photographs of general camp interest in German and Italian camps, could be taken subject to the conditions hereunder, but group photographs of PW allocated through Control Centres for employment in rural industry were NOT permitted:

(a) Groups were to comprise not less than 10 PW

(b) PW were permitted to purchase two copies of photographs in which they appeared and two copies of photographs of general camp interest, for despatch to relatives

(c) All such photographs were to be taken by Army Photographers who visited camps for the purpose of taking other photographs for historical and record purposes.

(d) Prints were supplied at a cost of 1/6d. each

(e) Items of general camp interest photographed were to include only sports teams, gardens, chapels and theatres

(f) PW being photographed were to be properly dressed (in their national uniforms if possible) except that sports teams could be photographed in their sporting attire

(g) No camp security fencing or other security arrangements were to appear in photographs

16. As PW employed in rural industry had opportunity to have photographs of themselves taken at will, care was taken to ensure that permission was not granted under para 38 (1C) of Camp Order No. 13 for the despatch by them of photographs showing them in the company of women in Australia.

12. Photographs for Identification Purposes

The celluloid negatives for Western Australian Italian prisoners of war are archived in the Sydney branch of the National Archives.  Due to the fragility of and concern for the ongoing preservation for these negatives, a number of photographs have been developed.  They are part of the K1174 series of records.  If you father or grandfather was sent to work in Western Australia, check to see if his identification photograph has survived.

Aurelio CANESE PWI48413 NAA: K1174 Canese, Aurelio

13. PW prohibited to have photographic apparatus

Ermanno Nicoletti was a keen photographer.  His property statement indicates that a roll of film was taken from him upon arrival in Australia. According to the regulations, this roll should have been returned to him upon departure from Australia.

There is a case in India of an Italian prisoner of war constructing an illicit camera: Lido Saltamartini took 2000 photographs with this camera.

Do any families have stories about illicit cameras made in Australia?

Ermanno Nicoletti (NAA: MP1103/2 Nicoletti, Ermanno)

14. The International Red Cross delegate was authorised to take photographs in PW Camps

The archival records from the ICRC are invaluable in helping us ‘see’ this history 75+ years later.  Below is a photo taken at the Morgan Wood Hostel in South Australia.

Guerre 1939-1945. Camp de Hostel Morgan. Camp de prisonniers de guerre italiens.

Italian Prisoners of War: Morgan Hostel SA July 1944 ICRC V-P-HIST-01879-22A

15. Group photographs of German and Italian PW held in camps, labour detachments or Hostels, and photographs of general camp interest in German and Italian camps, could be taken subject to the conditions hereunder, but group photographs of PW allocated through Control Centres for employment in rural industry were NOT permitted:

Q4 was the prisoner of war control centre at Gayndah in Queensland. The below photo was taken in the Gayndah district. It captures seven Italian prisoners of war with local ladies and children. There is no record of who took the photo.  Giovanni Cioffi is standing on the left and Marco Liscio is standing second from the right. They both worked on the farm of R.J. Mayfield north of Gayndah Queensland.

Group of Italian prisoners of war and local families Gayndah Queensland c. 1944-45 (photo courtesy of Liscio and Cioffi families)

15 (a) Groups were to comprise not less than 10 PW

Generally speaking, group photos consisted of 10 or more Italian prisoners of war.  There are photos of less than 10 Italians, most likely taken in the camps where officers and their batmen resided.

Murchison, Australia. 2 March 1945. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned in D2 Compound, No. 13 POW Group. (AWM Image 030230/01 Photographer Ronald Leslie Stewart)

Murchison, Australia. 4 March 1945. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned in D1 Compound, No. 13 POW Group. (AWM Image 030237/03 Photographer Ronald Leslie Stewart)

15 (b) PW were permitted to purchase two copies of photographs in which they appeared and two copies of photographs of general camp interest, for despatch to relatives

Massimo Gatti is the gentleman with the big smile on his face seated second from the left.  Massimo is one of many Italians who appeared to have taken advantage of the ‘two copies of photographs in which they appeared’ rule.  Massimo Gatti is in not one but five Cowra photos: Sept 1943 and February 1944. Technically, he could buy 10 photos of himself with different groups of friends.

Cowra, NSW. 16 September 1943. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POW) interned at No. 12 POW Group. Back row, left to right: 49515 A. Rosmini; 46586 C. Robbone; 46064 M. Matteini; 45737 B. Gambutti; 46297 O. Novi; 49535 P. Miglietta. Front row: 46096 A. Matteini; 45739 M. Gatti; 45006 B. Arbasi 45740 L. Guarnieri. Note: The number is an assigned POW number. (AWM 030149/16 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

15 (e) Items of general camp interest photographed were to include only sports teams, gardens, chapels and theatres

You will notice the model of the colosseum in the centre of the photo and the plinth with an Italian tank just at the right side of the photo. Anecdotal accounts of vegetable garden beds constructed between the barracks are verified by photographs of Hay Camp.  You will notice the care taken to wire off vegetables from rabbits and construct edging around the garden beds and statues. The first residents of Hay Camp were Italian internees. The internees departed for Murchison in May 1941 and the first group of Italian prisoners of war to arrive in Australia ‘marched in’ late May 1941. By the time this photograph was taken, Hay Camp is well established.

Hay, NSW. 1944-01-16 The craftmanship of the Italian Prisoners of War is illustrated by this garden at the 16th Garrison Battalion Prisoner of War Detention Camp. Note the model of the Coliseum in the foreground. (AWM Image 063365 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

15 (f) PW being photographed were to be properly dressed (in their national uniforms if possible) except that sports teams could be photographed in their sporting attire

How did the Italians procure sports shirts, shin guards and socks? Possibly they were provided by the YMCA, a group instrumental in providing sporting, music and craft equipment for the Italian prisoners of war.

Murchison, Australia. 2 March 1945. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned in C Compound, No. 13 POW Group. Shown here are: 65915 F. Pieri; 65987 C. Rossi; 65209 G. Baffa; 65710 V. La Rocca; 65370 F. Carone; 65230 E. Baruzzi; 65197 A. Armeni; 65237 F. Battisti; 65300 L. Bruno; 65602 G. Furioli; 65398 S. Cavillin; 65864 A. Pacini. Note: The number is an assigned POW number. (AWM Image 030231/14 Photographer Stewart, Ronald Leslie)

15 (g) No camp security fencing or other security arrangements were to appear in photographs

Obviously the photographer of this photo was not aware of this regulation! Or possibly, because the photo was taken in November 1945, concerns over the photographing of security installations had been relaxed.

Liverpool, NSW 1945-11-23. Prisoner of War and Internment Camp. NX167806 Private L. Patchett on Guard in a searchlight equipped sentry tower. (AWM Image 123756 Photographer L. Cpl. E. McQuillan)

16. As PW employed in rural industry had opportunity to have photographs of themselves taken at will, care was taken to ensure that permission was not granted under para 38 (1C) of Camp Order No. 13 for the despatch by them of photographs showing them in the company of women in Australia.

The regulation was clear, ‘no fraternization with women’.  Farming families however did take photographs of the Italian prisoners of war with family members.  The Italians were photographed with family groups for Christmas, Boxing Day picnic at the beach, with grandma, grandpa and children of all ages.  Many farming families had the attitude: ‘no harm done’.

Ruby Robinson standing and Olive Munro (nee Robinson) seated with three men from the province of Lecce:  Antonio Colomba, Antonio Alfarano (Alfarno) and Giuseppe Vergine Robinson Family Orchard via Gayndah (photo courtesy of Avis Hildreth)

Sailing Home

Ormonde 3

The Ormonde departed from Sydney on 31st December 1946.  The official army records record that 2231 Italian prisoners of war were on the boat: 52 officers and 2179 ordinary ranks.  A group of 1992 Italian POWs came from the Liverpool Prisoner of War & Internment Camp in Sydney, as the above form highlights.

If your father or grandfather was repatriated to Italy on the Ormonde then you will find this file very interesting as it contains a list of the Italians on this ship:

[Repatriation of Italian Prisoners of War per Ormonde 24.12.1946] [0.5cm; box 9] Series numberSP196/1 Control Symbol 10 PART 16

The file can be found at the National Archives of Australia   Find : Search the Collection and click on Go to Record Search. Enter the words repatriation Ormonde and you will be taken to the file.

I will explain a little about these National Archives files.  The two personal files for every Italian prisoner of war in Australia, are available, free of charge.  Other files like the file for the Ormonde is free to view because someone has paid for a copy.  When this happens, the file is then available free to everyone.  There are files for other repatriation ships eg Alcantara, Otranto, Chitral.  You can view them if you visit the National Archives of Australia in Sydney.  Or you can pay for a copy of the file and help other Italian families.

The newspaper photo below holds a clue to the journey of the Italian prisoners of war.  The men boarded at Pyrmont Wharf in Sydney. Captain Morgan mentions Di Biasi, a former Fiat mechanic in the article below.  The man mentioned is Benvenuto De Biasi, born in Belluno and resident of Genoa.  Is the man’s surname Di Biasi or De Biasi?  The newspaper article states Di Biasi and his record has De Biasi.

 

Farewell Ormonde

Ormonde. - Copy

1946 ‘Australian Guards Farewell Italians’, The Sun (Sydney, NSW : 1910 – 1954), 24 December, p. 2. (LATE FINAL EXTRA), viewed 17 Jan 2020, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article229545602

The Ormonde docked at Fremantle in Western Australia and boarded 20 more Italians. Worthy of note was that there were Italian Lieutenants onboard.

These newspaper articles are available from Australia’s archived newspaper website: Trove .  This is another excellent resource.  There are ways to ‘refine’ your search eg decade, years.  If you search Italian prisoners of war, this title is too general.  It would be difficult to navigate if you do not know English.  I know I would have difficulty searching databases in Italian.

Ormonde

1946 ‘Road Back’, The Daily News (Perth, WA : 1882 – 1950), 31 December, p. 6. (HOME EDITION), viewed 17 Jan 2020, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article78214705

My research has been about finding the pieces of the puzzle and putting them all together. Documents, photos, newspaper articles, stories and memories are very important in recording this history in a context:  footprints of Italian prisoner of war from the battlefields of Africa to Palestine to Egypt to India to Australia and return to Italy.

And another clue emerges: what pier did the Italians leave Melbourne from: Station Pier. Quite possibly it was also the place where the Italians arrived into Melbourne Australia in 1943 – 1945.

Ormonde Kissing Flag

1946 ‘ITALIAN KISSES OUR FLAG’, Daily Mercury (Mackay, Qld. : 1906 – 1954), 28 December, p. 1. , viewed 17 Jan 2020, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article171343636