Tag Archives: Hay Prisoner of War Camp 1944

A Voice from the Past…

In a beautiful tribute to his nonno, Damiano Lumia recorded the voice of Antonino Lumia telling his story as a soldier and a prisoner of war.

Lumia Antonio Lumia Hay II

Hay, NSW. 9 September 1943. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POW) interned at No. 6 POW Group. In this group are known to be: 46032 Raffaele Lomonaco; 46627 Giuseppe Restivo; 46007 Antonio Lumia (front row second left); 45586 Isidoro De Blasi; 46206 Gaetano Mineo; 45360 Giuseppe Cannata; 45103 Leonardo Barbera; 45997 Pietro Lomonte; 46221 Antonio Rondi and 47999 Leonardo Ciaccio. Note: The number is an assigned POW number.

(Australian War Memorial Lewecki Image 030143/33)

Antonino’s  journey begins in Sicily and listening to his voice, we follow in his footsteps from his home town of Bompensiere to Toburk and Benghazi, then Australia. Finally, Antonino takes us back to Italy and his family.

Antonino Lumia begins his story with,

My dear grandson, I had a lot of trouble. When they called us…”

and ends with…

I saw your grandmother. I came down. I came home. I rushed to your father. Here is my story, dear grandson. The sufferings were severe, dear grandson”.

Damiano’s video Antonino Lumia POW in Australia 1941-1946  combines images of Bompensiere with photographs and documents from Australian War Memorial and National Archives of Australia  to take the viewer on an intimate journey through time.

Antonino’s memories are told with humour and melancholy. English subtitles combined with Antonino’s voice, makes this accessible for those who only speak English. More importantly for those Queenslanders who have memories of ‘their’ Italian POW, it brings back to life their voices: the timbre and musicality of the Italian language.

“Footprints of Italian Prisoners of War in Queensland” has always been about connectivity between people, with the past, between Italians and Australians, with memories and history.

I am honoured and humbled that Damiano Lumia’s video has become part of this project for the oral histories of Italian prisoners of war are paramount to adding depth and perspective to this project.

Another aspect of the project has been to connect people with information. Research has provided Damiano with details about Antonino’s time in Queensland.  Antonino Lumia was assigned to Q3 PWCC Gympie along with Giovanni Adamo.  They were employed by Mr R – Mr Kevin John Rodney of North Deep Creek from 14 March 1944 to 4 January 1946.  Miss Gloria, mentioned by Antonino is Miss Gloria Davis from Auchenflower.  Mr R and Miss Gloria were married in St Stephen’s Cathedral in Brisbane on 6th May 1944.

Antonino remembers with clarity when he first met Miss Gloria. “The farmer was back. You could hear the horn of his car in the distance.  His wife was with him.  I had planted very beautiful flowers near the hut. I mad a bouquet of flowers.  When they arrived near us… I offered flowers to his wife.  He introduced us to his wife: Miss Gloria. They went home. For us the work continued. The next morning Madame served us the meal.  A very nice woman. Every morning I brought wood to this woman for cooking”, speaks Antonino.

Antonino Lumia’s testimony is not only a voice from the past but also an important window into the past.  Click on the above link and take a walk with Antonino through history.

Lumia Antonio Lumia Hay

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-16. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR HAVING A MEAL IN THEIR MESS AT NO. 7 COMPOUND, 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. PICTURED ARE: 46007 ANTONIO LUMIA (1); 45824 BRUNO GALLIZZI (2); 46734 ALMO STAGNARO (3); 48355 GIUSEPPE ARRIGONI; (4); 45087 ANTONIO BACCIGALUPO (5); 46620 MICHELE RIZZO (6); 46626 EMILIO RUOCCO (7); 46635 FRANCO RONDELLI (8); 45900 ALESSANDRO IANNOTTA (9).

(Australian War Memorial, Geoffrey McInnes Image 063371)

 

Hay Camp: March 1943

Hay Prisoner of War and Internment Camp

26 – 29 March 1943

A day in the life of an Italian prisoner of war at Hay PW & I Camp

The details of daily routine are from March 1943. The photographs are used for illustrative purposes and are from November 1942, September 1943, January 1944.

Kitchen

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-16. COOKS AND STAFF AT WORK IN ONE OF THE KITCHENS OF THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. PICTURED ARE: 46915 PRIVATE (PTE) VALTER VINCENZI (1); 46922 PTE GIUSEPPE VEZZIANO (2); 45236 PTE ANGELO CRETI (3); 45070 PTE ENRICO BRUNELLI (4); 46117 SGT PIETRO MAESTA (5); 45180 PTE GINO CALDARELLI (6); 46847 PTE ORAZIO TRICCOLI (7); 46897 PTE FRANCESCO TIRALOSI (8); 45390 PTE CARLO DEL VAI (9); 46512 PTE DOMENICO PANICO (10); 46569 PTE ANTONIO RAGAZZINI (11) 45632 PTE MASSIMO FACCHINI (12); 46585 PTE ALFONSO RONCA (13); 45092 PTE FLORINDO BUSSETTI (14). (AWM Image 063362 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Daily Routine

Day Starts 6 am

Breakfast 6.30 am

Medical Consultation 7am

Roll Call 7.30 am

Depart for Work 8 am

Inspection by Camp Leader 9.30am

Lunch 12.15pm

Depart for Work 1.15 pm

Medical Consultation 5pm

Roll Call 5pm

Dinner 6pm

Lights Out 10.15pm

Hospital

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-16. THE MEDICAL OFFICER AND STAFF OF NO. 7 COMPOUND, 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP OUTSIDE THE CAMP HOSPITAL. PICTURED, LEFT TO RIGHT: 49775 LIEUTENANT (DR) FRANCO FREDA; 48274 PRIVATE (PTE) SANTE PRATICO; 46430 PTE SANTE PROVENZANO; 46010 PTE FRANCO LUPPINO; 45478 PTE MARINO DE LUCA; 46931 PTE GIOVANNI VALENZA; 45205 PTE ALBERTO CIATTAGLIA; 46169 PTE SANTO MOSCHELLA. (AWM Image 63361 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Sleeping Quarters

The barracks are made of timber planks with a tin roof and window panes.  Electric lights are installed. For ventilation and to protect the insides from dust storms and flies, metal screens are installed between the top of the walls and the roof.

Barracks

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-14. THE 16TH AUSTRALIAN GARRISON BATTALION AT THE PRISONER OF WAR (POW) CAMP. A VIEW OF THE MEN’S LINES. ALMOST ALL THE BUILDINGS IN THE CAMP ARE BUILT OF TIMBER, WHICH, UNDER THE HOT CLIMATIC CONDITIONS, ARE OILED ON THE OUTSIDE. THIS SERVES IN THE ABSENCE OF PAINT. (AWM Image 063207 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Between the barracks there are flower and vegetable gardens.  Some men breed rabbits. Some men keep pets such as birds.

Vegetable gardens and chess

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-15. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR RELAX AT A GAME OF CHESS OUTSIDE THEIR HUT AT THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. (AWM Image 063354 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

In Camp 7, the Italians have built grass huts/pavilions to protect them against the sun.

Grass Hut 2

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-16. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR SHELTERING FROM THE HOT SUN UNDER ONE OF THE MANY GRASS THATCHED ROTUNDAS WHICH THEY HAVE BUILT AT THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. (AWM Image 063359 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Each dormitory contains 28 berths. The bedding includes a mattress resting on  metal mesh and 4 blankets. Each dormitory has 12 windows and 2 doors.

Dormitories

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-16. LIVING QUARTERS OF THE ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR AT THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. (AWM Image 063356 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Every man has a shelving for his belongings. The dormitories are swept daily, and once a week the dormitory is emptied and cleaned with soap.

Scrubbign out of huts

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-15. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR AT THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP, WITH THEIR BEDS OUT IN THE OPEN IN PREPARATION FOR THE WEEKLY SCRUBBING OUT OF THEIR HUT. PICTURED, LEFT TO RIGHT: 46720 PRIVATE (PTE) SALVATORE SQUASI; 45236 PTE ANGELO CRETI; UNIDENTIFIED (NOT LOOKING AT CAMERA); 47970 PTE RENATO CORTESI; 46180 PTE VITTORIO MELI; 48255 PTE EDUARDO PIZZI; 45642 ANTONIO FURNARI; 46348 PTE RAFFAELE ORIGLIA; 46980 PTE SALVATORE VALENTINO; 46353 PTE GASTONE PETRONI; 46426 PTE EDMONDO PICCIONI; 48526 PTE DOMENICO LANDADIO; 46864 SERGEANT MAJOR FRANCESCO TUPPY. (AWM Image 063353 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Mess and Kitchen

Each camp has 4 refectories with long tables and benches. The non-commissioned officers of Camp 7 have a special refectory. All refectories are heated in winter.

Mess

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-16. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR HAVING A MEAL IN THEIR MESS AT NO. 7 COMPOUND, 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. PICTURED ARE: 46137 SALVATORE MARRA (1); 46825 OTELLO SILVESTRI (2); 45752 ANTONIO GRAMMATICO (3); 47852 EDUARDO ADORNI (4); 45142 FRANCESCO CUPPARI (5). (AWM Image 063370 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Each camp has two kitchens, each consisting of a large stove room, a macaroni room, a bread room, a food room, a meat room, a vegetable room and a fridge.

Soyer Boilers Kitchen

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-13/14. BATTERY OF COOKERS OUTSIDE THE KITCHENS OF THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. (AWM Image 062927 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Ablutions and Laundry

Each camp has a booth containing 6 hot showers and 16 hot and cold water taps, a booth containing 30 cold showers, and two booths each containing 26 cold water faucets. In hot shower booths, hot water flows all day long.

Laundry 1

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-17. GENERAL VIEW OF THE LAUNDRY AT THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR (POW) DETENTION CAMP SHOWING THE ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR AT WORK. THE LAUNDRY IS EQUIPPED WITH AND ELECTRIC WASHING MACHINE, COPPER, ELECTRIC IRON AND SEVERAL ADDITIONAL COPPERS ARE USED OUT IN THE OPEN. (AWM Image 063501 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Each camp has a laundry booth containing 4 boilers, 14 sinks and 26 hot and cold water faucets, as well as 1 ironing chamber.

Laundry

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-17. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR OF THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR (POW) DETENTION CAMP WORKING IN THE CAMP LAUNDRY. LINEN AND UNIFORMS FROM THE CAMP HOSPITAL ARE LAUNDERED HERE. ALL LINEN, ET CETERA, IN THIS ROOM IS DRYING ON THE RACKS AFTER BEING STARCHED. (AWM Image 063500 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Activities and Canteen

Camp 7 has an empty barrack used as a music room, a school barrack, an administrative barrack and a barracks of handicrafts. Camp 8 has a chapel, a barrack half canteen administration, and a barrack half recreation half manual work.

Chapel

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-16. 45005 LIEUTENANT PADRE I. VIRGILIO IACOBELLI AN ITALIAN ROMAN CATHOLIC PRIEST, AT THE ALTAR IN THE CHAPEL OF NO. 7 COMPOUND, 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. ALL THE CRAFT WORK IN THE CHAPEL WAS DONE BY THE PRISONERS. PLAYING THE ORGAN IS 45192 SERGEANT MAJOR VINCENZO CAMMARATA. (AWM Image 063360 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Each camp has a barrack reserved for the canteen. There are no bars in these camps.

Canteen

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-16. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR PURCHASING GOODS AT THE CANTEEN IN NO. 7 COMPOUND, 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. PICTURED ARE: 46429 PRIVATE (PTE) FERDINANDO PUGGIONI (1); 46642 PTE ROBERTO ROSSETTI (2); 48444 PTE FLAVIO CERRI (3); 45743 PTE FALIERO GAMBI (4); 46161 PTE ALFREDO MUSACCHIA (5). (AWM Image 063363 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

The school of Camp 7 is installed in an empty barrack. The teaching is done by the priest prisoner of war and deals with elementary matters. The class includes 15 students. Camp 8 school is in one of the refectories. There is no regular class, only that NCOs themselves study elementary matters.

The camps have almost no reading books. Each camp has a theater with stage installed in one of the refectories. An outdoor stage is under construction at Camp 7. Theatrical performances and concerts are organized from time to time. Camp 7 has an orchestra of 10 musicians and Camp 8 has one of 8 musicians. The instruments were bought with the profits of the canteens.

Orchestra

HAY, AUSTRALIA, 1943-09-09. GROUP OF ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR INTERNED AT NO.6. P.O.W. GROUP, WHO HAVE FORMED THEMSELVES INTO THE CAMP ORHESTRA. (AWM Image 030142/02)

Each camp has a large sports field. Practical sports are mainly football, basketball and boxing. Camp 7 has a game of balls and 5 tennis courts.

3905879

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-16. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR ENJOYING A GAME OF TENNIS ON THEIR COURT AT NO. 7 COMPOUND, 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. (AWM Image 063364 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Work

Camp 7 has at its disposal a barracks for handicrafts divided into four compartments – hairdressers, tailors, shoemakers and carpenters.

Bootmakers

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-20. N77562 SERGEANT L. MULHOLLAND (1) NON COMMISSIONED OFFICER IN CHARGE OF THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR (POW) DETENTION CAMP BOOTMAKERS SHOP AND HIS ITALIAN ASSISTANTS WORKING IN THE UNIT SHOP. (AWM Image 063536 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

A model farm and dairy of 120 cows provides milk to all the camps.

Carpentry.Dairy

Hay, NSW. November 1942. Two Italian prisoners of war (POWs) construct the roof of the dairy which is being erected at the camp. The bricks were made by other prisoners in the camp’s brickyard. Rough timber was also cut and transported by the prisoners. (AWM Image 150903 Photographer Harry Turner)

Dairy

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-17. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR MILKING COWS AT THE DAIRY FARM OF THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. ALL THE MILK FROM THE CAMP’S DAIRY IS FOR LOCAL AND HOSPITAL (14TH AUSTRALIAN GENERAL HOSPITAL) CONSUMPTION. (AWM Image 063412 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

The construction by the irrigation canal system of a total length of 90 km has allowed the introduction of the cultivation of many species of vegetables.

Irrigation

Hay, NSW. November 1942. An irrigation canal constructed by Italian prisoners of war (POWs) from a nearby camp. (AWM Image 150892 Photographer Harry Turner)

A poultry farm for 2000 chickens has been constructed.

 

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-17. THE POULTRY YARDS AT THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. (AWM Image 063384 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-17. THE POULTRY YARDS AT THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. (AWM Image 063380 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Bricks for construction work at the camps are made by Italian prisoners of war.

Brick Making

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-13/14. 45161 SERGEANT MARIO CAPORASO, AN ITALIAN PRISONER OF WAR, WHEELING A BARROW LOAD OF BRICKS FROM THE MOULDING SECTION TO THE DRYING ROOM AT THE BRICK MAKING PLANT AT THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. (AWM Image 062935 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Hay PW & I Camp

Hay Prisoner of War and Internment Camp was built in July 1940 at the location of the Hay Racecourse, Show Grounds and Recreation Reserve. The first residents were Italian and German internees from Britain who arrived in September 1940.

No 7

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-14. VIEW OF NO. 7 COMPOUND, 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP TAKEN FROM THE SOUTH GUARD TOWER OF NO. 8 COMPOUND. (AWM Image 063213 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Initially planned for 2 compounds each accommodating 1000, this was extended to 3 compounds: Camp 6, Camp 7 and Camp 8. In March 1943, Camp 6 residents were Japanese internees, Camp 7 residents were Italian POWs and Camp 8 residents were also Italian POWs. There were three labour detatchments drawn from Camp 7 and Camp 8: Yanco (NSW), Toogimie (NSW) and Cook (SA). Yanco was a vegetable production project, Toobimie (and later Riley’s Bend) was a firewood procurement satellite camp with Cook being a railways re-sleeping project and firewood production.

No 8

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-14. NO. 8 COMPOUND OF THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND ARE THE ADMINISTRATION AND ORDERLY ROOM OF THE HEADQUARTERS 16TH GARRISON BATTALION. (AWM Image 063208 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

The internees began departure from Hay PW & I Camp on 25th May 1941 to make way for the Italian prisoners of war who had arrived on the Queen Mary into Sydney on 27th May. The article below from  29th May 1941 discusses this change in Hay Camp residents.


On 20th July 1942, the Hay Camp was described as a “Model Prisoner of War Camp” where, “The men have made their own roads, erected their own pumping plants and fences, and laid down their own irrigation channels and sewerage. They have made their
own bricks, and built a modern dairy.”

In time,  Italian POWs were replaced by Japanese POWs. Some 2000 Japanese POWs left Hay 1st March 1946 to make way for the return of the Italians POWs. Italian POWs were being withdrawn from farm service and brought back into camps.

Queensland  Italian prisoners of war from all centres excluding Q8 Kingaroy left Gaythorne PW & I Camp for Hay on 18th and 25th March 1946. 

Hay PW & I Camp closed on 28th October 1946. The Italian POWs were then transferred to Cowra PW & I Camp in preparation for repatriation. In Novemeber 1946, a comprehensive article was written by A.J.T. Hay Prisoner of War Camp Some Reflections

 

 

Hay Statues

HAY, NSW. 1944-01-16. THE CRAFTSMANSHIP OF THE ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR IS ILLUSTRATED BY THIS GARDEN AT THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. NOTE THE MODEL OF THE COLISEUM IN THE FOREGROUND. (AWM Image 063365 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

In March 1947, the buildings and property of Hay PW & I Camp were advertised for auction: The Commonwealth Disposals Commission will offer buildings and cooking, kitchen, and laundry equipment, as well as a considerable quantity of miscellaneous camp equipment, at an auction sale to be conducted at the P.O.W. Camp, Hay, from June 17 to 20. The buildings are mainly of rusticated weatherboard, with corrugated asbestos cement roofs. The Land: Disposal Sale of Hay P.O.W.