Category Archives: Murchison PW & I Camp

I pray for a special favour…

Giuseppe and Tarquinio Scatena spent the duration of the war together: 231 Leg. Blackshirts, capture at Bug Bug 11.12.40, processing in Geneifa (ME Numbers 30249 and 30243), arrival in Australia onboard Lurline 16.11.43, processing in Murchsion (PWI 56934 and 56935), transfer from Murchison PW Camp to Brighton Camp 17.2.44, allocation to farm work T2 PWCC Launceston 24.2.44, awarding of 28 days detention for disobeying a lawful command on 1.4.44.

Family men from Capistrello L’Aquila, Tarquinio was 31 years old with a son and two daughters while Giuseppe was 34 years old with two sons and one daughter.

On 1.8.44, unfortunately Giuseppe and Tarquinio  go separate ways when Tarquinio was returned from Brighton to Murchison as medically unfit.  This separation lead Giuseppe to pen a letter to the Brighton Camp Commandant on 2.8.44.

Comandante

Translation

To Camp commandant

Dear Sir,

During five years of military life, of which four years have been spent as a prisoner of war, I have always been united with my brother SCATERA – Tarquinio.  In whichever command we have been under, we always have had the privilege of being together and I cannot understand the reason why we have been separated.  Therefore I beg you to let us re-unite at the earliest opportunity.

I pray, as a special favor, to take into consideration, the pain and desperation that two brothers would feel in being apart.

I would like to explain that we  have not received any news from our families for about 14 months, and the only consolation we have is to speak a word of comfort between us.

Thanking you in anticipation.

sgd SCATERA Giuseppe

PW56934

(NAA: P617, 519/3/159 Part )

In response, Captain Pearson wrote to Captain Tiege to inform Giuseppe that a transfer to Murchison PW Camp might not necessarily mean he would be reunited with his brother. The memo continues that while no promise could be made, the matter would be considered when the next draft of Italian prisoners were returned to Murchison Camp.

A year later on 28.8.45, Giuseppe was transferred to Murchison Camp.  This transfer resulted in the brothers returning to Italy, together onboard Ortranto 10.1.47.

Had Giuseppe remained in Tasmania, he would have been transferred to Sandy Creek then Loveday Camps in South Australia and repatriated without Tarquinio in 1946.

Someone somewhere in the chain of command had shown a little understanding and humanity.

Resourceful

Resourceful is an apt description of Mario Marino.  A stone mason from Pentone Catanzaro, as a prisoner of war in Australia, he nominated his occupation as ‘bricklayer’, a more versatile job.  Throughout his life, he continued to work with concrete, stone and bricks in the construction industry in Morwell Victoria owning his own business and operating as Marino Bros.

Among the first 2000 Italian POWs to be shipped directly from Libya to Sydney onboard Queen Mary, from Sydney he was trained to Hay. He travelled with two compatriots also from Pentone, Salvatore Tarantino and Graziano Mustari.

As a ‘skilled’ POW, Mario was put to work in construction at Hay Prisoner of War and Internment Camp.  Put to work making clay bricks, Mario spent over two and a half years at Hay before being sent to Cowra. He also had experience in surveying and did surveying for clearing and road building while at Hay. Salvatore was sent to Murchison and then V4 Leongatha while Mario and Graziano stayed together in Cowra then Gaythorne.  Their Queensland farm allocations had them sent in different directions: with Mario going to the farm of R Brown at Bapaume in Q1 Stanthorpe area and Graziano to Q3 Gympie area.

Marino, Hay

Hay, NSW. 1944-01-13/14. Sergeant M. Marino an Italian prisoners of war stacking freshly made clay bricks in the drying shed at the 16th Garrison Battalion Prisoner of War Camp

(Australia War Memorial Image 062932)

It appears that Mario’s resourcefulness had him reallocated to a Victorian farm in the V4 Leongatha area.  Interestingly, Salvatore also was at V4 Leongatha at the time and they both spent time together at V22 Rowville.

Repatriated to Italy in January 1947, it wasn’t long before he married Marietta and made plans to return to Australia. He left Italy onboard the Toscano in June 1949 and his first son Antonio was born in July 1949.  It would be three years before he would meet his first born child, when his wife and child arrived in Melbourne in 1953.

The  Carmody family of Leongatha had been Mario’s POW employer and sponsored his return to Australia. Settling in Leongatha, Mario was joined by his brothers Giuseppe and Angelo. All three brothers worked at the Wonthaggi State Coal Mine in the latter part of 1951.  Giuseppe drove the horse and cart which took coal out of the mine on railway lines, Mario was a seamer, lying on his stomach in cramped confines shovelling out the coal and Angelo would stack the coal tightly in the kibbles. Vince Moranti was a family friend who also worked with the Marino brothers in the coal mine.

Built between 1953 and 1954, the Traralgon Hospital construction site became Mario’s new workplace.  Continuing working in construction and concrete, he then established himself as a concrete contractor and won council contracts such as footpath building.  By 1954, Mario applied for naturalization and in 1955 his naturalization was reported in the newspaper.

Not forgetting his POW compatriots, Mario sponsored Salvatore Tarantino in 1955 and in 1956 Graziano Mustari also migrated to Morwell. Graziano however returned to Italy in 1964.

A growing migrant community in the district opened an opportunity for Mario to branch out into a food emporium  in Church Street Morwell, selling salamis, coffee, cheeses and other continental goods.  He diversified further by taking his shop to the farmers of the district and his children remember the box of juicy fruit chewing gum kept in the truck.

Returning to construction, Mario continued to work in the industry until his retirement. A supporter of the local football club, the Morwell community held him in high regard and he would always be asked to join the trainer and coach at home games.

And of those days as a prisoner of war, Mario told his family that as soldiers in the sands of Libya, Mussolini gave them little hope and only a pistol with one shot and a rifle with another.  The soldiers were half starved and they didn’t have a chance. But his time as a prisoner of war in Australia opened the door to a new start in life for his family.

Resourcefulness and optimism were trademarks to Mario’s life.

 

Marino, Mario 1955

The Argus (Melbourne, Vic.: 1849-1957) Thursday 17 November 1955

 

 

 

 

 

Salt Harvest Project Laverton

Salt havesting at Laverton during WW2 is a history lesson in itself.

Allied Works Council – Italian Ex-Internees – Italian Prisoners of War – Laverton Hostel

Salt Harvesting 1943

In February 1943, there was a real concern that the salt harvest would not be possible unless labour was found.

MEN NEEDED FOR SALT HARVESTING

GEELONG. — The salt harvest began here today, but the manpower shortage is so acute that the District National Service Officer (Mr J. H. Hamlyn) is awaiting final instruction to make a special call-up in Class 4 for men from less essential industry to help in the harvest. At least 100 men are required locally and 60 at Laverton. Where Cheetham Salt Co. has extensive settling pans.

The manpower position at Laverton is even more difficult than at Geelong where a start was made with about 25 men.The work must be done against time, as a break in the weather may cause the loss of a harvest essential for munitions*, as well as a food commodity. The loss of the harvest would also hold up the industry in the winter, when the company’s factories are usually operated at capacity.

FACTORIES CLOSED

To permit a start today It was necessary to close the factories and transfer employees to the harvesting. Manpower authorities believed they would obtain the release of a number of men from district military camps and others from less essential industry, but these have not yet been obtained. Outside staffs of district municipalities are assisting but It may be necessary. In addition to a special call-up, to engage a number of volunteers who formerly harvested In this district, on a part-time basis. This will not be altogether satisfactory as the work requires skill and Is more difficult, than that which the volunteers have previously done.

Hardly any manpower is available for the Laverton harvest.

1943 ‘MEN NEEDED FOR SALT HARVESTING’, The Herald (Melbourne, Vic. : 1861 – 1954), 8 February, p. 3. , viewed 05 Feb 2020, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article245965857

Ex-Internees Harvest Salt 1943

A labour force of Italians was sent to Laverton to alleviated the labour shortage. This group of Italians had been interned. Three of these Italians were from Halifax and Macknade North Queensland.  They had been arrested in 1942, processed at Gaythorne Internment Camp and sent to Cowra for internment.  In February 1943, they were released to AWC (Allied Works Council) Victoria.

A release from internment, did not necessarily guarantee a return to their home and families.  For Giuseppe, Giovanni and Paolo they were then sent to work harvesting salt at Cheetham.  The AWC Salt Works Camp broke up on 14th May 1943.

Ex-Internees Harvest Salt 1944

A workforce of Italian ex-Internees was again utilised for the 1944 salt harvest.  The Italians were dissatisfied and adopted a ‘go slow’ campaign. The article explains the situation:

1944 Go Slow

1944 ‘ITALIANS AT SALT WORKS’, The Age (Melbourne, Vic. : 1854 – 1954), 8 February, p. 4. , viewed 03 Feb 2020, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article206786756

This workforce of Italian ex-internees was replaced by Italian prisoners of war.

Italian Prisoners of War Harvest Salt 1944

A number of entries in the War Diary for L.H.Q. Melbourne for 4.3.44,  discuss the use of Italian prisoners of war to harvest salt. On 17.3.44  59 Italian prisoners of war were transferred to Laverton (Temporary) Hostel: C.S.W. Laverton.  The salt harvest finished in June and 60 Italian POWs were transferred to Murchison PW Camp.

Laverton 3.3.44

(AWM Adjutant General 6 (a) Prisoners of War Adjutant General 13. March – May 44)

Laverton List of Prisoners of War 1944

Italian Prisoners of War Harvest Salt 1945

Italian prisoners of war are were again employed to harvest salt, this time during the 1945 season.  The Cheetham Salt Works had purchased a mechanical harvester.  The 1944 Italian prisoners of war had worked at  50% capacity.  The Salt Works hoped that the Italian prisoners of war together with a harvester would ensure that salt would be harvested in 2 months. The 1945 harvest took 3 1/2 months: Italian prisoners of war worked on the salt harvest from February 45 to 1.7.45.

Laverton 17.2.45AWM Adjutant General 6 (a) Prisoners of War Adjutant General 13. January  – March 45

1945 POW Labour - Copy

1945 ‘RACE TO GET IN SALT HARVEST’, The Herald (Melbourne, Vic. : 1861 – 1954), 21 February, p. 5. , viewed 03 Feb 2020, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article245343563

The Laverton (Temporary) Hostel which provided accommodation for the Italians was located at Werribee as the article below indicates.  Francesco Fuda was assigned to Laverton Hostel on 27.2.45.

1945 escape

1945 ‘ITALIAN PRISONER ESCAPES’, The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 – 1957), 9 March, p. 4. , viewed 03 Feb 2020, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article1095687

Laverton List of Prisoners of War 1945

*I am interested to know about the use of salt in munitions.  Can anyone help?

POW Camp Order No. 13

February 1944

  • Prisoner of War Camp Order No.13 is published and circulated
  • Mariposa transports 1014 Italian prisoners of war from India to Melbourne
  • Ruys transports 2028 Italian prisoners of war from India: a group disembarks at Fremantle and the the remainder disembark at Melbourne.
  • Italian prisoners of war in Australia total 11051 plus a group of merchant seamen from Remo and Romolo who were first processed as internees and then reassigned as prisoners of war.  In 1941, 4947 had been sent directly from Middle East to Sydney. During 1943 and 1944 transports brought Italian POWs from India.

I have been blessed with much luck while researching Italian Prisoners of War.

I might be researching a topic or a PWCC or a specific POW and one statement or one document will lead me to another and then another and then another.

105

(National Archives of Australia)

The booklet ‘ Prisoners of War Camp Order No. 13’ is one such find. Dated 18th February 1944  it contains eight parts:

  1. Preliminary
  2. Prisoners of War Camps
  3. Maintenance of Discipline
  4. Health and Hygiene
  5. Communication by and with Prisoners of War
  6. Privileges of Prisoners of War
  7. Prisoners of War Awaiting Trial
  8. Unguarded Prisoners

The previous Prisoners of War Camp Orders No. 1 to 12 were repealed upon publication of No. 13.  These orders are of a general nature, as they are the guidelines for the operation of all prisoner of war camps in Australia.

However, more comprehensive and detailed explanations of the operations of prisoner of war and internment camps in Australia can be found with the links below:

The ‘History of Directorate of Prisoners of War and Internees 1939 – 1951‘ is an invaluable document regarding this period of history as is the section Employment of Enemy PW and Internees.

I have also compiled a list of Further Reading  with links to information for India, UK, Zonderwater South Africa, Egypt  and Australian states.

 

Murchison: January 1944

Camp 13 C Murchison

Murchison Plan

(from Arrastus in Sa Storia: Antiogu Pinna)

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MURCHISON, AUSTRALIA. 1943-01. PANORAMIC VIEW OF CAMPS OF NO. 13 PRISONER OF WAR GROUP. (JOIN UP WITH NOS. 28523 – 28533.)

Daily Routine

Daily routine

3920398Murchison, Australia. 5 March 1945. 740 Italian prisoners of war (POWs) from C Compound, No. 13 POW Group are engaged daily in picking tomatoes on the properties in the Shepparton district. This photograph shows the men leaving the compound to embuss on trucks for transport to the tomato gardens. (AWM 030239/10 Photographer Ronald Leslie Stewart)

The above photograph shows the men dressed in jackets, trousers and overcoats which were Australian army surplus uniforms dyed burgundy. Work details away from the camp required the men to wear these uniforms.

Clothing

Clothing

General

In total, there are 150 men in Camp 13 c.  The group comprises of Italian: 93 army, 10 sailors, 11 protected personnel, 14 merchant sailors.  There are also 21 Finnish merchant sailors and 1 Romanian merchant sailor.

All prisoners of war have the right to wear their insignia of rank.

The camp commandant is Sergeant-Major Ernani De Cesare.

The 3 officers comprise of 2 doctors and 1 priest.  The average age of the men in camp is 30 years.

The camps have flower gardens and vegetable gardens.  Each camp has a beautiful memorial to the dead, made by the prisoners themselves.

3958531

Murchison, Australia. 28 February 1945. Italian prisoners of war (POWs) working in the ornamental gardens at Headquarters, No. 13 POW Group. Pictured, left to right: 47574 G. Marrone; 61484 V. Marrone; 47720 A. Simone; 45751 N. Gullaci; 7235 G. Rapetti. Note: The number is an assigned POW number. (AWM Image 030227/13 Photographer Ronald Leslie Stewart)

Murchison 4113366

MURCHISON, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA. 1944-05-22. MONUMENT BUILT BY ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR IN THEIR COMPOUND (13C) AT THE MURCHISON PRISONER OF WAR GROUP. (AWM Image 066762)

The camp has a barracks for workshops: tailors, barbers and shoe makers. Some prisoners are taking care of the cement construction and gravestone engraving for the tombs of the dead comrades.

Murchison 3869465

MURCHISON, VIC. 1943-11-23/30. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR EMPLOYED IN THE TINSMITHS SHOP AT THE 13TH AUSTRALIAN PRISONER OF WAR GROUP. (AWM Image 061127 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

Recreation and Sport

The camp has a library of 800 volumes. This camp houses 21 Finnish merchant sailors who would like to have books in English added to the library.

A barrack for recreation was constructed. It is a place for the orchestra and the stage plus seating for 500 people. Theatrical productions are presented from time to time. The camp has a small orchestra.

The cinema sessions are organised regularly via a small projector from the German camp. This camp would like to buy a small projector like the model from Camp 13B.

The sports field is big and is in the interior of the camp.  The sport played mostly is football.  The camp also has a tennis court.

Murchison 3923990

MURCHISON, VICTORIA, AUSTRALIA. 1944-05-22. AN ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR SOCCER FOOTBALL TEAM OF THE 13C COMPOUND, MURCHISON PRISONER OF WAR GROUP. (AWM Image 066755)

Apart from the ordinary chores necessitated by the normal upkeep of the camp, prisoner soldiers may be required to perform certain work outside the camp. This work is obligatory and is ordered by the camp commander.

4100309

MURCHISON, AUSTRALIA. 1943-01. PRISONERS OF WAR ENGAGED ON CONSTRUCTION WORK IN THE CAMP OF NO. 13 PRISONER OF WAR GROUP IN WHICH THEY ARE INTERNED. GERMAN AND ITALIAN PRISONERS, CAPTURED IN THE WESTERN DESERT, AS WELL AS CIVILIAN INTERNEES, ARE HOUSED IN THE CAMPS. (AWM Image 028598)

On the other hand, the suboffices, the protected personnel and the prisoners belonging to the merchant navy are not bound to the work. For the latter the work is voluntary. Officers may be called for supervisory work, but may also be available for another paid job. The officers are not bound to any work.

The working day is 8 hours. Two small breaks of 15 minutes each; one break for the morning tea and the afternoon tea. Lunch break is provided as well. Sunday is a day of rest.

3960299

Murchison, Australia. 5 March 1945. 740 Italian prisoners of war (POWs) from C Compound, No. 13 POW Group are engaged daily in picking tomatoes on the properties in the Shepparton district. This photograph shows the men leaving the compound and are checked out by an Australian Military Forces (AMF) officer and handed over to supervisors (right) in parties of twenty. (AWM Image 030239/08 Photographer Ronald Leslie Stewart)

For movements of any importance, trucks are made available to the workers. prisoners in the Murchison Group’s camps carry out following work: gardening, logging, carpentry, cement-making, road building, camp improvement and unloading.

3958909.jpg

MURCHISON, VIC. 1943-11-23/30. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR CUTTING FIREWOOD ON A SAWBENCH AT THE 13TH AUSTRALIAN PRISONER OF WAR GROUP. (AWM Image 061117 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)

The group has a large vegetable garden with an area of 120 acres where all the work is done by the prisoners.

Each camp has tailors, shoemakers, carpenters and hairdressers.

Apart from this work  many prisoners of war take care of personal work: fashioning of cabinets, chairs, tables, wood carvings, painting, drawing, weaving, making various wooden articles and children’s toys.

With the exception of ordinary chores eg cleaning barracks and ablution blocks,  all other work prisoners of war receive a remuneration which is established as follows:

Unqualified work – 7.5 pence per day

Work qualified – 1 shilling 3 pence a day

Supervision work – 10 pence a day, when the team includes only unskilled workers.

Qualified supervision work – 1 shilling 6 pence a day, when the team includes one or more skilled workers.

3920399

Murchison, Australia. 5 March 1945. View of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned in C Compound, No. 13 POW Group, picking tomatoes on a property in the Shepparton district where 740 Italian POWs work daily. An Australian Military Officer is seen, middle background, on a visit to the pickers to ensure maintenance of output. (AWM Image 032039/11 Photogrpaher Ronald Leslie Stewart)

 

A Father’s Love

Liborio Bonadonna was a private in the Italian Army, serving with the 231 Legion Militia when he was captured at Buq Buq on 11th December 1940. The Battle of Sidi Barrani was the opening battle of Operation Compass and 38,300 Italians were captured at Sidi Barrani and Buq Buq from 10 – 11 December 1940.

Bonadonna, Liborio

Liborio Bonadonna

(NAA: A7919 C101539 Buonadonna, Librio)

A young farmer from Gela Caltanissetta, Liborio was living in Tripoli along with his wife and his parents when he joined Mussolini’s war.  His father, desperate for his son’s safety, fell prey to unscrupulous agents who, for a sum of money, promised the repatriation of their family members who were prisoners of war.

In a letter sent to Liborio, his father Carmelo Bonadonna wrote on 21st December 1943:

Dear son, here it was said that prisoners who are sons of farmers, were to be repatriated on the payment of six thousand lire, and I, for the great affection I bear you, was one of the first to pay; in fact they asked us for one of your letters in order to have your address.  Up to the present, we have seen nothing.  Imagine, dear son, how happy we all in the family were for just then I did not know what I could do for the love of you.

Liborio had spent almost three years in camps in India and would not arrive in Italy for another three years. The actions of his father however highlight how anxious the family were to ensure a safe and early return of Liborio.

From Cowra, Liborio was assigned to work on farms at N8 PWCC Orange and N24 PWCC Lismore. Suffering on-going health issues, he was sent to local and military hospitals and was eventually transferred to Murchison for consideration for early repatriation on the basis of medical grounds.

Such was his health,  he was on the list to embark on the Andes which left Australia on 3rd August 1945. Unfortunately, on 16th July 1945 he was sent to 28 Australian Camp Hospital at Tatura which was part of the Murchison POW complex.  He missed early repatriation and was to stay in hospital for two and a half months.

Liborio 28 ACH

28th Australian Camp Hospital Tatura

(AWM Image 052452)

The irony of his situation was that while he was approved for early medical repatriation he was too unwell to travel.  His medical condition had deemed him ‘medically’ unfit to work and gave him priority for repatriation on medical grounds. During 1946, several transports for special circumstance cases, left Australia for Naples but Liborio was overlooked.

While he considered himself to be well enough to travel, he was identified as having need for specialist medical attention during the voyage to Italy. He could only be repatriated once as specially fitted out ship became available.

On 10th September 1946, in a letter to the Camp C.O. he presented his case:

Just at the time when the repatriation of the sick was to take place I was in the Waranga military hospital whence I was discharged early in September…

The present repatriation lists from which I have been exclude because repatriation is to be effect by ordinary means (i.e. in ships not especially adapted for transport of the sick) include nearly all the sick who, like me, were then considered as needing attention during the voyage.

Today I will to inform you that, notwithstanding a year’s stay in camp without any special treatment, my condition is such as to enable me to stand the possible discomforts of the trip home; I therefore request to be reinscribed on the above mentioned list, taking upon myself the full and complete responsibility in the event of any possible deterioration of my health.

My family live in Tripolitania and it is my urgent wish to rejoin it in the shortest possible time.  To the above I can only add the prayer that you will kindly consider my request.

The Empire Clyde* returned Liborio to Italy. It was a Royal Navy Hospital Ship which departed Sydney for Naples on 12th December 1946. There were 226 Italian prisoners of war on board who had embarked at Sydney, Melbourne and Fremantle.

But Liborio’s return to his family in Tripoli was further delayed. Once he arrived in Naples, he required an operation.  Fighting bureaucracy, he tried to gain permission several times to reach Libya and his wife and parents.

Liborio’s grandson, Liborio Mauro says that “He told her [my grandmother] if I’m not able to join you, I would like to go back in Australia. After 3 times, he finally joined my grandmother in Libya where my father Carmelo was born in Tripoli in 1949.

Tracing Liborio’s journey as a prisoner of war has not been an easy on. His grandson  explains that his records have his name spelt incorrectly: BUONADONNA instead of BONADONNA, LIBRIO instead of LIBORIO.

But passion and determination on the part of grandson Liborio has ensured that Liborio Bonadonna’s story is told and his records and photographs of his time as a prisoner of war in Australia are with the family.

Liborio Mauro says, “All my family are happy and my father is crying for happiness. My grandfather was the most important person in my family.  He was a true gentleman, well-educated and everyone fell in love with him.  He was a strong and simple man.”

*The Empire Clyde was a British Navy war prize from the Abyssinian campaign. It was formerly an Italian passenger liner Leonardo da Vinci.

 

Leonardo Da Vinci-07

 

Liborio and Liborio - Copy

Liborio Bonadonna with his family c 1979, grandson Liborio Mauro on his grandfather’s lap

(photograph from the collection of Liborio Mauro)

 

 

 

 

Serendipity – Photos of Nonno

Expect the unexpected

Cowra Group Photos 16th September 1943 and 6th February 1944

Hay Group Photos 9th September 1943.

Murchison Group Photos 2nd May 1944 and 2nd and 4th March 1945.

Marrinup Group Photos 29th July 1944.

The Australian War Memorial has an extensive collection of photos featuring Italian prisoners of war. They show the men at work in camp workshops, in the fields and at sport.  There are also group photos which the Italians were allowed to purchase to send home to families.  But there are some complications with searches which I include below.

3915943 Murchison Sport

Murchison, Australia. 2 March 1945. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned in C Compound, No. 13 POW Group. Shown here are: 65915 F. Pieri; 65987 C. Rossi; 65209 G. Baffa; 65710 V. La Rocca; 65370 F. Carone; 65230 E. Baruzzi; 65197 A. Armeni; 65237 F. Battisti; 65300 L. Bruno; 65602 G. Furioli; 65398 S. Cavillin; 65864 A. Pacini. Note: The number is an assigned POW number. (AWM Image 030231/14 Photographer: Ronald Leslie Stewart)

Sometimes you get Lucky

I was searching the Murchison group photos for random photos of silver rings. Silver rings are another story but as I was looking through the photos I found a face I knew.  What are the chances!  This photo did not list the names of the men.  But I was sure I knew him. I had been introduced to Liborio Bonadonna in 2017 by his grandson Liborio Mauro. And I was pretty sure the man seated at the far right was Nonno Liborio.

Bonadonna maybe

Murchison, Australia. 2 March 1945. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned in D2 Compound, No. 13 POW Group. (AWM Image 030229/10 Photographer Ronald Leslie Stewart)

I have been introduced to a number of Italian prisoners of war over the last three years and I know that sometimes, one man will appear in two or three photos, taken on the same day. And I know several of the men below.  Another story.

Buonadonna

Description Murchison, Australia. 2 March 1945. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POWs) interned in D2 Compound, No. 13 POW Group. Back row, left to right: 64837 A. Porcaro; 49904 S. Russo; 57220 G. Fino; Unidentified; 45531 V. Di Pietro; 61074 G. De Luca. Front row: 45685 B. Fiorentino; Unidentified; 46171 G. Massaro (holding a piano accordion); 46603 V. Massaro; 55168 L. Buonadonne. Note: The number is an assigned POW number. Photo documentation suggests that names are listed, back row, front row, left to right. (AWM 020229/02 Photographer Ronald Leslie Stewart)

Taken seven photos apart, Liboria Bonadonna is seated far right in both photos.  In 549 he is wearing casual clothes but in 557 he is wearing his uniform.  As his name was spelt incorrectly in 549, the photo was found with a search of his number 55168.
Alessandra’s Diligence Paid Off
Alessandra Nicoletti is researching her grandfather’s journey as a prisoner of war: Ermanno Nicoletti.  A search revealed this photo from Hay PW Camp.  Note the words: In this photo are known to be…
Nonno Ermanno is standing first left. And Alessandra also found the face of Agostino Marazzi a family friend.

 

AWM 3880406 Ermanno Nicoletti first left standing (1)

Hay, NSW. 9 September 1943. Group of Italian prisoners of war (POW) interned at No. 6 POW Group. In this group are known to be: 45513 Francesco Del Viscio; 46331 Ermanno Nicoletti; 45852 Italo Gramiccia; 46320 Natale Nunziati; 46207 Valerio Mezzani 45498 Giovanni Di Pinto; 45496 Giuseppe Di Pilla; 46199 Agostino Marazzi; 46511 Alfonso Patrizi and 48922 Sergio Galazzi. Note: The number is an assigned POW number. (AWM Image 030143/26 Photographer Lewecki)

I am not sure  how many photos Alessandra looked at, but she then found Nonno Ermanno is this photo.  He is seated to the left of the man with the piano accordian.  He is holding a guitar. And at that stage in her search, she did not know he performed in operas and plays in the camp.

7278801

Hay, NSW. 9 September 1943. A large group of Italian prisoners of war (POW) interned at No. 6 POW Group. Some of the men are holding musical instruments. (AWM Image 030145/33 Photographer Lewecki)

 

Serendipity… Chance… Fluke…Fate

Many times in this research, things happen randomly. I often tell people “your nonno tapped you on the shoulder and helped you with your search” or ” your nonno made you find this research” as so many outcomes have been totally random. Unfortunately for some families, their questions are still left unanswered.

There is also a randomness in which army documents are archived. Why do WA Italian prisoners of war have a comprehensive and additional folio of documents while Queensland Italian POWs do not?  Often, we have to be satisfied that one knows more now than they did when a particular search began.

Some of the Hurdles

You can search by name or by prisoner of war number but sometimes the names are mispelt or numbers incorrect by a digit.

As well, while the Hay PW Camp photos give the names for the men in the group photos, the position of men is not known.

Additionally, many of the group photos are without names.  So if you are looking for someone, and their name does not come up with a search, you might have to check every photo.  To reduce the number of photos to search, do a check of the dates on the Service Card with the dates of the group photos.

Unfortunately,  Italian prisoners of war coming to Australia in 1944 and 1945 missed the group photo sessions in Hay and Cowra, so unless they spent time in Murchison in 1945, there might not be a photographic record for them.

Cowra Group Photos 16th September 1943 and 6th February 1944

Hay Group Photos 9th September 1943.

Murchison Group Photos 2nd May 1944 and 2nd and 4th March 1945.

Marrinup Group Photos 29th July 1944.

 

 

L’Amico del Prigioniero

It is thanks to Costanzo Melino that I know about L’Amico del Prigioniero. His daughter Rosa wrote Anzaro: The Home of my Ancestors which included her father’s memoirs of his time as a prisoner of war.

Costanzo said, “In 1943, Italy surrendered but we had to go to Australia [from India] to work on the farms.  We boarded an English ship which took us to Melbourne and then eventually by train to Cowra and Hay.  At that time we had an Apostolic Delegate who was from Lecce, also Pugliese, and he gave all the prisoners a book that I still have called the ‘Amico del Prigioniero’ (‘Friend of the Prisoner’’).”

The Apostolic Delegate was Monseigneur Giovanni Panicio and he published this book through Pellegrini, Sydney, 1943.  It is a prayer book written in Latin and Italian containing the service of the mass, important prayers, Catholic Calendar of Holy Days from 1943 to 1951 and hymns.

Holy Days.jpeg

The book being written in Italian and Latin is significant.  As mass was said in Latin until Second Vatican 1965, ensuring that the Italian prisoners of war had a prayer book in Italian was a significant show of concern for  their spiritual welfare.

Also, while the Italians had access to books in Italian in the libraries of Hay and Cowra, when they were on the farm, a book in Italian was an important gesture on behalf of Giovanni Panico.

L'Amico.jpeg

There are six copies of L’Amico del Prigioniero are held in museums and libraries in Australia.  I spent a morning in the Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW and felt honoured to view this special relic pertaining to Italian prisoners of war and internees.

To understand the importance of this prayer book in Latin and Italian, a little background is necessary, “…the Second Vatican Ecumenical Council (also called Vatican II) to discuss how the Catholic Church would face the modern world. Until 1965, all Catholic Mass was said in Latin, and the Church realized that may alienate parishioners who spoke Latin only in church. So the Church had to translate the Catholic Mass into a variety of different languages. from http://www.dictionary.com/e/catholic/

(photos courtesy of Joanne Tapiolas)

1943 Canteen Tokens

1943 saw the replacement of paper money used in internment and prisoner of war camps with metal tokens.

In February 1943, the Minister for the Army announced the introduction of metal tokens for use in internment and prisoner of war camps.

Memorandum 3rd March 1943, National Security Regulations, Prisoners of War and Internees – Canteen Tokens recorded: ‘ It is intended that metal tokens shall be used for all prisoners of war and internment camps instead of paper chits.’

Interestingly, New Zealand utilised Australian minted money tokens; a five shilling coin is held in Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa in Wellington.

Tokens for NZ

[NAA:A571, 1941/1659]

Further information on Canteen Tokens

History of Paper Bank Notes, Paper Chits and Canteen Coupons

Internees in Hay Camp 7 produced their own currency, an example can be seen at the Sydney Jewish Museum.  Today, at auction one note can fetch up to $12,500.

Hay Camp Currency with Faith details the currency used and also examples of the paper chits which were used.

Tatura Camp had canteen coupons and Harvey Internment Camp WA also had paper canteen coupons.

Pidgin English for Italians

July 1943

Pidgin English for Italian Prisoners of War

Pidgin English for Italian Prisoners of War

There are many references to the Italian-English language booklet that the Italian prisoners of war were issued with.

Laurie Dwyer from Aratula via Boonah remembers Paul bringing out his book and asking Laurie to help him with learning English: “Paul used the dictionary to try to improve his English but decided that English was stupid.  There were a lot of problems with miscommunication. Paul would wait for me to return home from school and then get out the yellow book they had for English.  Pronunciation was mainly the problem. Paper and pepper sounded the same. He also had difficulty with tree and the.  They had trouble with slang like ‘give it a burl’. One morning dad and the Italians were doing some fencing.  It was time to go home for lunch so dad told them to leave the crowbar there.  The word leave was a problem and they thought dad wanted them to carry it away with them.  Dad would have raised his voice and they thought that he was angry with them.  Paul told the interpreter the next day, ‘boss got mad, I got mad’.  He thought that he would be taken away.  Things were sorted. Another time, the Fordson tractor wouldn’t start so dad went to get the draught horses.  The horses wouldn’t get into the yards and dad would have blown off steam and whatever he said, or it might have been the way he said it, Paul and Peter thought they had done something wrong.  They had a great deal of respect for dad and they didn’t want to get into trouble.  So the next time the interpreter came to the farm, they asked to find out ‘what they did wrong’.  They would explain what had happened and the interpreter would explain what had happened.” (Don’t Run Away)

Dorcas Grimmet in “We Remember: The Italian Prisoners of War 1944/45” a publication about the Italian POWs on farms in the Kingaroy district includes a page from an Italian and English Book for Italian POWs.

And we know that language classes were held in camps like Cowra and Hay.

Pidgin English for Italian Prisoners of War was specifically published  and given to Italian POWs being allocated to farm work under the Prisoner of War Control Centre : Without Guard scheme.  Some of the sections were: Tools, Machinery, Farm Produce, Animals, Hygiene and Medical, Family, House and Conjugation of Verbs.