The ‘camps’ in Australia were not static. Over a period of seven years, the status of residents: civilian internee or prisoner of war; and their nationalities changed.
Hay Prisoner of War and Internment Camp was built in July 1940 at the location of the Hay Racecourse, Show Grounds and Recreation Reserve. The first residents were Italian and German internees from Britain who arrived in September 1940.
Initially planned for 2 compounds each accommodating 1000, this was extended to 3 compounds: Camp 6, Camp 7 and Camp 8. In March 1943, Camp 6 residents were Japanese internees, Camp 7 residents were Italian POWs and Camp 8 residents were also Italian POWs. There were three labour detatchments drawn from Camp 7 and Camp 8: Yanco (NSW), Toogimie (NSW) and Cook (SA). Yanco was a vegetable production project, Toobimie (and later Riley’s Bend) was a firewood procurement satellite camp with Cook being a railways re-sleeping project and firewood production.
The internees began departure from Hay PW & I Camp on 25th May 1941 to make way for the Italian prisoners of war who had arrived on the Queen Mary into Sydney on 27th May. The article below from 29th May 1941 discusses this change in Hay Camp residents.
On 20th July 1942, the Hay Camp was described as a “Model Prisoner of War Camp” where, “The men have made their own roads, erected their own pumping plants and fences, and laid down their own irrigation channels and sewerage. They have made their own bricks, and built a modern dairy.”
HAY, NSW. 1944-01-17. ITALIAN PRISONERS OF WAR MILKING COWS AT THE DAIRY FARM OF THE 16TH GARRISON BATTALION PRISONER OF WAR DETENTION CAMP. ALL THE MILK FROM THE CAMP’S DAIRY IS FOR LOCAL AND HOSPITAL (14TH AUSTRALIAN GENERAL HOSPITAL) CONSUMPTION. (AWM Image 063412 Photographer Geoffrey McInnes)
In time, Italian POWs were replaced by Japanese POWs. Some 2000 Japanese POWs left Hay 1st March 1946 to make way for the return of the Italians POWs. Italian POWs were being withdrawn from farm service and brought back into camps.
Queensland Italian prisoners of war from all centres excluding Q8 Kingaroy left Gaythorne PW & I Camp for Hay on 18th and 25th March 1946.
Hay PW & I Camp closed on 28th October 1946. The Italian POWs were then transferred to Cowra PW & I Camp in preparation for repatriation. In Novemeber 1946, a comprehensive article was written by A.J.T. Hay Prisoner of War Camp Some Reflections